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Increased amounts of carcinoembryonic antigen (C.E.A.) or C.E.A.-like material are found in the urine of many patients with transitional cell carcinomas of the bladder, including those presumed to be at an early stage of development. It is suggested that measurement of urinary C.E.A. is of clinical diagnostic value in the detection and follow-up of(More)
Our studies have confirmed that raised plasma levels of carcinoembryonic antigen (C.E.A.) occur with many but not all malignant tumours, particularly those of the gastrointestinal tract, breast, and bronchus. However, the incidence of raised values may reach 30% in diseases associated with inflammation or regeneration or both. Consequently, it cannot serve(More)
Serial estimations of plasma carcinoembryonic antigen (C.E.A.) levels have been carried out in 220 patients with colorectal carcinomas who had potentially and apparently curative surgery. In a two-year follow-up period 53 patients developed recurrences or metastases. In 36 of these patients sustained rises in plasma C.E.A. titres occurred synchronously with(More)
Twenty-three out of 28 patients with metastatic breast carcinoma and one out of 13 patients with localised disease had raised levels of plasma immunoreactive calcitonin. Monolayer cultures of breast carcinomas maintained for up to 10 weeks released immunoreactive calcitonin, and a primary breast carcinoma passaged in "nude" mice for over a year contained(More)
Two radioimmunoassays for human lactalbumin have been established using a rabbit antiserum. One assay uses a second antibody to separate bound from free label; the other uses polyethylene glycol to precipitate gamma globulin non-specifically. We have confirmed that about half the normal human population have a substance in their blood which inhibits the(More)
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