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NF-kappaB/Rel transcription factors and IkappaB kinases (IKK) are essential for inflammation and immune responses, but also for bone-morphogenesis, skin proliferation and differentiation. Determining their other functions has previously been impossible, owing to embryonic lethality of NF-kappaB/Rel or IKK-deficient animals. Using a gene targeting approach(More)
The nuclei of spermatozoa in all mammals examined so far contain P1 protamine. A second protamine variant, protamine P2, has to date been isolated only from human and murine spermatozoa where it represents the major fraction of basic nuclear protein. In order to elucidate the reason for this unusual distribution of the protamine variants among mammals we(More)
Complementary DNA clones for the boar preproacrosin have been isolated from a randomly primed testis cDNA library in lambda gt10 and from an oligo(dT)-primed testis cDNA in lambda gt11. The nucleotide sequence of the 1418-bp cDNA insert includes a 46-bp 5'-untranslated region, an open reading frame of 1248 bp corresponding to 416 amino acids (45.59 kDa) and(More)
The body pattern along the anterior-posterior axis of the insect embryo is thought to be established by two organizing centres localized at the ends of the egg. Genetic analysis of the polarity-organizing centres in Drosophila has identified three distinct classes of maternal effect genes that organize the anterior, posterior and terminal pattern elements(More)
The sperm enzyme acrosin has long been known as one of the key enzymes in the mammalian fertilization process. Elucidation of primary structures of preproacrosin from various species have allowed a deeper insight into the structural organization and the complex evolution of the sperm proteinase acrosin. In addition to the typical elements of serine(More)
Genes from two Drosophila virilis intermoult puffs were isolated by microcloning. From puff 16A on the X-chromosome a 2.9 kb DNA fragment was obtained, which hybridizes with three transcripts. Two of them represent the mRNAs for larval glue proteins. They are found in different abundancies in third larval instar salivary glands, but also in minor amounts in(More)
During spermatogenesis, the nucleoproteins undergo several dramatic changes as the germinal cells differentiate to produce the mature sperm. With nuclear elongation and condensation, the histones are replaced by basic spermatidal transition proteins, which are themselves subsequently replaced by protamines. We have isolated cDNA clones for one of the(More)
Complementary DNA-clones for human preproacrosin have been isolated from a human testis cDNA library in lambda gt11. The nucleotide sequence of the 1402 bp cDNA insert includes a 20 bp 5' noncoding region, an open reading frame of 1263 bp corresponding to 421 amino acids (45.9 kdalton), and a 105 bp 3' untranslated region. The deduced amino acid sequence is(More)
Rat preproacrosin primary structure as predicted from a 1431 nucleotide (nt) cDNA indicates that the molecule is synthesized as a preproenzym consisting of a putative 19 amino acid signal sequence, a 23 amino acid light chain and finally a 395 amino acid heavy chain. Functional domains like the catalytic triad (His-70, Asp-124, Ser-222) are highly conserved(More)
The primary structure of mouse preproacrosin was deduced by nucleotide sequencing of cDNA clones isolated from a mouse testis cDNA library. The largest cDNA, with 1373 bp, consists of a 11-bp 5'untranslated sequence, a 1254-bp open reading frame terminated by a TGA triplet and a 105-bp 3' untranslated end, including one potential polyadenylation signal. The(More)