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Volumes of the hippocampal formation, external and internal pallidum, caudate, putamen, and nucleus accumbens were measured in both hemispheres of recently collected post-mortem brains of 18 chronically ill schizophrenics and 21 control subjects. In the schizophrenic group, the hippocampal formation and the internal pallidum were significantly smaller in(More)
The secreted glycoprotein WNT1 is expressed in the caudal midbrain and is essential for proper development of the entire mid-/hindbrain region. To get better insights into Wnt1 function in the mid-/hindbrain region, we ectopically expressed Wnt1 under the control of the endogenous En1 promoter, thereby extending Wnt1 expression rostrally into the anterior(More)
The cardiovascular system is currently considered a target for particulate matter, especially for ultrafine particles. In addition to autonomic or cytokine mediated effects, the direct interaction of inhaled materials with the target tissue must be examined to understand the underlying mechanisms. In the first approach, pulmonary and systemic distribution(More)
The vestibular system of the inner ear is responsible for the perception of motion and gravity. Key elements of this organ are otoconia, tiny biomineral particles in the utricle and the saccule. In response to gravity or linear acceleration, otoconia deflect the stereocilia of the hair cells, thus transducing kinetic movements into sensorineural action(More)
In Bohr's model of the hydrogen atom, the electron takes about 150 attoseconds (1 as = 10(-18) s) to orbit around the proton, defining the characteristic timescale for dynamics in the electronic shell of atoms. Recording atomic transients in real time requires excitation and probing on this scale. The recent observation of single sub-femtosecond (1 fs =(More)
The characteristic time constants of the relaxation dynamics of core-excited atoms have hitherto been inferred from the linewidths of electronic transitions measured by continuous-wave extreme ultraviolet or X-ray spectroscopy. Here we demonstrate that a laser-based sampling system, consisting of a few-femtosecond visible light pulse and a synchronized(More)
The generation of ultrashort pulses is a key to exploring the dynamic behaviour of matter on ever-shorter timescales. Recent developments have pushed the duration of laser pulses close to its natural limit-the wave cycle, which lasts somewhat longer than one femtosecond (1 fs = 10-15 s) in the visible spectral range. Time-resolved measurements with these(More)
The electromagnetic field of visible light performs approximately 10(15) oscillations per second. Although many instruments are sensitive to the amplitude and frequency (or wavelength) of these oscillations, they cannot access the light field itself. We directly observed how the field built up and disappeared in a short, few-cycle pulse of visible laser(More)
Photoelectrons excited by extreme ultraviolet or x-ray photons in the presence of a strong laser field generally suffer a spread of their energies due to the absorption and emission of laser photons. We demonstrate that if the emitted electron wave packet is temporally confined to a small fraction of the oscillation period of the interacting light wave, its(More)
Comprehensive knowledge of the dynamic behaviour of electrons in condensed-matter systems is pertinent to the development of many modern technologies, such as semiconductor and molecular electronics, optoelectronics, information processing and photovoltaics. Yet it remains challenging to probe electronic processes, many of which take place in the attosecond(More)