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The parathyroid hormone-2 receptor is a member of the secretin family of guanine nucleotide-binding protein-coupled receptors. The human parathyroid hormone-2 receptor is activated by parathyroid hormone and a recently purified hypothalamic polypeptide, tubero-infundibular peptide of 39 residues, while the rat parathyroid hormone-2 receptor is poorly(More)
The reciprocal synapse between photoreceptors and horizontal cells underlies lateral inhibition and establishes the antagonistic center-surround receptive fields of retinal neurons to enhance visual contrast. Despite decades of study, the signal mediating the negative feedback from horizontal cells to cones has remained under debate because the small,(More)
The parathyroid hormone (PTH) family currently includes three peptides and three receptors. PTH regulates calcium homeostasis through bone and kidney PTH1 receptors. PTH-related peptide, probably also through PTH1 receptors, regulates skeletal, pancreatic, epidermal, and mammary gland differentiation and bladder and vascular smooth muscle relaxation and has(More)
—A new design on mixed-voltage I/O buffers with slew-rate control but without gate-oxide reliability problem in low-voltage CMOS process is proposed. The proposed circuit can effectively reduce the ground bounce effects without suffering gate-oxide reliability problems and hot-carrier degradation issues. The proposed mixed-voltage I/O buffer with slew-rate(More)
The N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) is a Na(+) and Ca(2+) permeable ionotropic glutamate receptor that is activated by the coagonists glycine and glutamate. NMDARs are critical to synaptic signaling and plasticity, and their dysfunction has been implicated in a number of neurological disorders, including schizophrenia, depression, and Alzheimer's(More)
To enhance physiological function of NMDA receptors (NMDARs), we identified positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) of NMDARs with selectivity for GluN2A subunit-containing receptors. X-ray crystallography revealed a binding site at the GluN1-GluN2A dimer interface of the extracellular ligand-binding domains (LBDs). Despite the similarity between the LBDs of(More)
P2P technology has been used widely in file and live media streaming sharing fields. But the architecture of P2P technology which we used is imperfect. In P2P system, most users are free-rider. They were not sharing their own resource because the architecture has no perfect incentive mechanism. Therefore, in this research, we propose a novel incentive(More)
Baby hamster kidney (BHK) fibroblasts increase their cell capacitance by 25-100% within 5 s upon activating maximal Ca influx via constitutively expressed cardiac Na/Ca exchangers (NCX1). Free Ca, measured with fluo-5N, transiently exceeds 0.2 mM with total Ca influx amounting to approximately 5 mmol/liter cell volume. Capacitance responses are half-maximal(More)