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To enhance physiological function of NMDA receptors (NMDARs), we identified positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) of NMDARs with selectivity for GluN2A subunit-containing receptors. X-ray crystallography revealed a binding site at the GluN1-GluN2A dimer interface of the extracellular ligand-binding domains (LBDs). Despite the similarity between the LBDs of(More)
The N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) is a Na(+) and Ca(2+) permeable ionotropic glutamate receptor that is activated by the coagonists glycine and glutamate. NMDARs are critical to synaptic signaling and plasticity, and their dysfunction has been implicated in a number of neurological disorders, including schizophrenia, depression, and Alzheimer's(More)
This study was conducted to test the hypothesis that n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are able to down-regulate expression of adhesion molecules and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation in vascular endothelial cells, in addition to reducing atherosclerotic lesions in vivo. We report here that docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) reduces atherosclerotic lesions in the(More)
The reciprocal synapse between photoreceptors and horizontal cells underlies lateral inhibition and establishes the antagonistic center-surround receptive fields of retinal neurons to enhance visual contrast. Despite decades of study, the signal mediating the negative feedback from horizontal cells to cones has remained under debate because the small,(More)
—A new design on mixed-voltage I/O buffers with slew-rate control but without gate-oxide reliability problem in low-voltage CMOS process is proposed. The proposed circuit can effectively reduce the ground bounce effects without suffering gate-oxide reliability problems and hot-carrier degradation issues. The proposed mixed-voltage I/O buffer with slew-rate(More)
Reconstitution experiments have suggested that N-ethylmaleimide sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) proteins constitute a minimal membrane fusion machinery but have yielded contradictory results, and it is unclear whether the mechanism of membrane merger is related to the stalk mechanism that underlies physiological membrane fusion. Here we(More)
We have compared Ca-dependent exocytosis in excised giant membrane patches and in whole-cell patch clamp with emphasis on the rat secretory cell line, RBL. Stable patches of 2-4 pF are easily excised from RBL cells after partially disrupting actin cytoskeleton with latrunculin A. Membrane fusion is triggered by switching the patch to a cytoplasmic solution(More)
P2P technology has been used widely in file and live media streaming sharing fields. But the architecture of P2P technology which we used is imperfect. In P2P system, most users are free-rider. They were not sharing their own resource because the architecture has no perfect incentive mechanism. Therefore, in this research, we propose a novel incentive(More)
Baby hamster kidney (BHK) fibroblasts increase their cell capacitance by 25-100% within 5 s upon activating maximal Ca influx via constitutively expressed cardiac Na/Ca exchangers (NCX1). Free Ca, measured with fluo-5N, transiently exceeds 0.2 mM with total Ca influx amounting to approximately 5 mmol/liter cell volume. Capacitance responses are half-maximal(More)