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Keywords: Reflective learning strategies Operational software Learning effectiveness Computer-assisted learning (CAL) ACT-R model a b s t r a c t Skill certification promotion is one of the main policies facilitated by the technological and vocational education, where application software instruction is regarded as the core curriculum to foster skill(More)
With the rapid growth of mobile network, tablets and smart phones have become sorts of keys to access personal secured services in our daily life. People use these devices to manage personal finances, shop on the Internet, and even pay at vending machines. Besides, it also helps us get connected with friends and business partners through social network(More)
A completely automated public turing test to tell computer and human apart (CAPTCHA) is based on the Turing test, which aims to protect Internet services from automatic script attacks and spams. However, most proposed or deployed CAPTCHAs have been breached. It is possible to enhance the security of an existing CAPTCHA by adding noises systematically adding(More)
Ad hoc routing protocols are vulnerable due to the absence of security mechanisms, allowing attacks such as forged routing advertisements to disrupt the routing scheme. Research work has been proposed for securing the routing protocol in ad hoc networks; however, solutions that utilize asymmetric cryptographic primitives are often infeasible in a(More)
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