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AIMS To determine the effect of methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) on mortality among injection drug users. DESIGN A cohort of prisoners with a history of injecting opiates who were followed after their release from prison in July 2007. Mortality between July 2007 and December 2008 was determined by linking the National Death Registry with the Methadone(More)
BACKGROUND Gender-sensitive tobacco control policies are being challenged, and new directions are being sought because public health efforts have reduced cigarette consumption more substantially among men than among women. To better target women, it would help to identify the protective cultural factors that promote resiliency in women and discourage them(More)
BACKGROUND Low health literacy is considered a worldwide health threat. The purpose of this study is to assess the prevalence and socio-demographic covariates of low health literacy in Taiwanese adults and to investigate the relationships between health literacy and health status and health care utilization. METHODS A national survey of 1493 adults was(More)
This article reports a generic methodology for developing health literacy assessment tools, consisting of 5 steps: (a) semi-structured, in-depth interviews of health care consumers; (b) consultation with health care, education, and psychometrics experts; (c) generation of an item pool; (d) selection of items for inclusion in the Mandarin Health Literacy(More)
BACKGROUND Psychology and addiction research have found that cigarette smokers react with subjective and automatic responses to stimuli associated with smoking. This study examines the association between the number of cigarettes smokers consume per month and their response to cues derived from peer and psychological distress. METHODS We studied 1,220(More)
OBJECTIVE Self-reported screening questions are considered as an effective way to identify patients with limited health literacy. Yet research has shown that individuals tend to over-report their reading level. Moreover, the likelihood of over-reporting may differ between gender groups. This study examined if systematic differences exist between men and(More)
PURPOSE Prior studies examining the connection between disposable income and adolescent smoking often yielded mixed results, partly due to the lack of consideration for contextual variables. In the present study, we sought to broaden understanding of disposable income on adolescent smoking behaviors via both absolute and relative perspectives in the school(More)
Extant research provides little evidence about how health literacy, self-efficacy and health locus of control are related to each other in affecting health behaviors. The purposes of this study were to examine the associations among health literacy, self-efficacy and health locus of control and how the three factors are related to health behaviors using(More)
Extant health literacy research is unclear about the contribution of health literacy to health behaviors and is limited regarding women's health issues. The primary purpose of this study is to investigate the association between health literacy and five health behaviors (Pap smear screening, annual physical checkup, smoking, checking food expiration dates,(More)
AIMS To assess the impact of a set of comprehensive tobacco control policies implemented in Taiwan in 2009, including extensive smoke-free policy, advertisement ban, pictorial warning and price increase, on adolescent smoking prevalence. DESIGN Five waves of cross-sectional surveys. SETTING Taiwan, 2004-11. PARTICIPANTS Nationally representative(More)