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BACKGROUND The ability to measure blood velocities is critical for studying vascular development, physiology, and pathology. A key challenge is to quantify a wide range of blood velocities in vessels deep within living specimens with concurrent diffraction-limited resolution imaging of vascular cells. Two-photon laser scanning microscopy (TPLSM) has shown(More)
Blood vessels form de novo (vasculogenesis) or upon sprouting of capillaries from preexisting vessels (angiogenesis). With high-resolution imaging of zebrafish vascular development, we uncovered a third mode of blood vessel formation whereby the first embryonic artery and vein, two unconnected blood vessels, arise from a common precursor vessel. The first(More)
One quarter of all iodinated contrast X-ray clinical imaging studies are now performed on Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) patients. Unfortunately, the iodine contrast agent used in X-ray is often toxic to CKD patients' weak kidneys, leading to significant morbidity and mortality. Hence, we are pioneering a new medical imaging method, called Magnetic Particle(More)
Recent growth in microfluidic technology is, to a large extent, driven by soft lithography, a high-throughput fabrication technique where polymer materials, such as poly͑dimethyl͒ siloxane ͑PDMS͒, are molded to form microscopic channel networks. Nevertheless, the channel architectures that can be obtained by molding are limited. We address this limitation(More)
Arteriovenous (AV) malformation (AVM) is a devastating condition characterized by focal lesions of enlarged, tangled vessels that shunt blood from arteries directly to veins. AVMs can form anywhere in the body and can cause debilitating ischemia and life-threatening hemorrhagic stroke. The mechanisms that underlie AVM formation remain poorly understood.(More)
Dramatic advances in electrophysiological technologies combined with the resilience of leech preparation have made experimental neuroscience accessible to the classroom. The Retzius cell in Hirudo Medicinalis is a prime target for current-dependent frequency studies. Fundamental spiking dynamics were explored in Retzius by examining short term memory(More)
We use tightly-focused femtosecond laser pulses to add an integrated microcapillary to a microfluidic device fabricated in poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS). Femtosecond laser micromachining together with debris removal by a wetting fluid complements standard soft lithography techniques for microfluidics fabrication in PDMS, allowing the addition of(More)
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