DNA replication in mammals is regulated via the coordinate firing of clusters of replicons that duplicate megabase-sized chromosome segments at specific times during S-phase. Cytogenetic studies show that these "replicon clusters" coalesce as subchromosomal units that persist through multiple cell generations, but the molecular boundaries of such units have… (More)
Eukaryotic chromosomes replicate in a temporal order known as the replication-timing program. In mammals, replication timing is cell-type-specific with at least half the genome switching replication timing during development, primarily in units of 400-800 kilobases ('replication domains'), whose positions are preserved in different cell types, conserved… (More)
To complement the human Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) project and to enable a broad range of mouse genomics efforts, the Mouse ENCODE Consortium is applying the same experimental pipelines developed for human ENCODE to annotate the mouse genome.
The laboratory mouse shares the majority of its protein-coding genes with humans, making it the premier model organism in biomedical research, yet the two mammals differ in significant ways. To gain greater insights into both shared and species-specific transcriptional and cellular regulatory programs in the mouse, the Mouse ENCODE Consortium has mapped… (More)
BACKGROUND Eukaryotic DNA replication is regulated at the level of large chromosomal domains (0.5-5 megabases in mammals) within which replicons are activated relatively synchronously. These domains replicate in a specific temporal order during S-phase and our genome-wide analyses of replication timing have demonstrated that this temporal order of domain… (More)
Many types of epigenetic profiling have been used to classify stem cells, stages of cellular differentiation, and cancer subtypes. Existing methods focus on local chromatin features such as DNA methylation and histone modifications that require extensive analysis for genome-wide coverage. Replication timing has emerged as a highly stable cell type-specific… (More)
We recently identified a set of chromosome domains that are early replicating uniquely in pluripotent cells. Their switch from early to late replication occurs just prior to germ layer commitment, associated with a stable form of gene silencing that is difficult to reverse. Here, we discuss results demonstrating that these domains are among the least… (More)
Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) is linked to contraction of an array of tandem 3.3-kb repeats (D4Z4) at 4q35.2 from 11-100 copies to 1-10 copies. The extent to which D4Z4 contraction at 4q35.2 affects overall 4q35.2 chromatin organization remains unclear. Because DNA replication timing is highly predictive of long-range chromatin interactions,… (More)