Tyrone C. Spady

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Advances in genome technology have facilitated a new understanding of the historical and genetic processes crucial to rapid phenotypic evolution under domestication. To understand the process of dog diversification better, we conducted an extensive genome-wide survey of more than 48,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms in dogs and their wild progenitor, the(More)
Cichlid fish of the East African Rift Lakes are renowned for their diversity and offer a unique opportunity to study adaptive changes in the visual system in rapidly evolving species flocks. Since color plays a significant role in mate choice, differences in visual sensitivities could greatly influence and even drive speciation of cichlids. Lake Malawi(More)
The evolution of cone opsin genes is characterized by a dynamic process of gene birth and death through gene duplication and loss. However, the forces governing the retention and death of opsin genes are poorly understood. African cichlid fishes have a range of ecologies, differing in habitat and foraging style, which make them ideal for examining the(More)
Cichlid fishes have radiated into hundreds of species in the Great Lakes of Africa. Brightly colored males display on leks and vie to be chosen by females as mates. Strong discrimination by females causes differential male mating success, rapid evolution of male color patterns and, possibly, speciation. In addition to differences in color pattern, Lake(More)
Coat color and type are essential characteristics of domestic dog breeds. Although the genetic basis of coat color has been well characterized, relatively little is known about the genes influencing coat growth pattern, length, and curl. We performed genome-wide association studies of more than 1000 dogs from 80 domestic breeds to identify genes associated(More)
Quantitative genetics have not been used in vision studies because of the difficulty of objectively measuring large numbers of individuals. Here, we examine the effectiveness of a molecular technique, real-time PCR, as an inference of visual components in the bluefin killifish, Lucania goodei, to determine whether there is population variation in opsin(More)
Retrotransposition of processed mRNAs is a common source of novel sequence acquired during the evolution of genomes. Although the vast majority of retroposed gene copies, or retrogenes, rapidly accumulate debilitating mutations that disrupt the reading frame, a small percentage become new genes that encode functional proteins. By using a multibreed(More)
Cichlid fish inhabit a diverse range of environments that vary in the spectral content of light available for vision. These differences should result in adaptive selective pressure on the genes involved in visual sensitivity, the opsin genes. This study examines the evidence for differential adaptive molecular evolution in East African cichlid opsin genes(More)
The visual receptor of rods and cones is a covalent complex of the apoprotein, opsin, and the light-sensitive chromophore, 11-cis-retinal. This pigment must fulfill many functions including photoactivation, spectral tuning, signal transmission, inactivation, and chromophore regeneration. Rod and cone photoreceptors employ distinct families of opsins.(More)
Animals use their sensory systems to detect information about the external environment in order to find mates, locate food and habitat and avoid predators. Yet, there is little understanding of the relative amounts of genetic and/or environmental variation in sensory system properties. In this paper, we demonstrate genetic and environmental variation in(More)