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When APIs evolve, clients make corresponding changes to their applications to utilize new or updated APIs. Despite the benefits of new or updated APIs, developers are often slow to adopt the new APIs. As a first step toward understanding the impact of API evolution on software ecosystems, we conduct an in-depth case study of the co-evolution behavior of(More)
Wound repair and proliferation were examined in the injured newt atrium with light- and electron-microscopic techniques including autoradiography. Hearts were injured by removing a piece approximately 0.5 mm2 of the atrial wall. The five-day wound was an endothelial and mesothelial-lined blood clot bordered by a 150-micron necrotic zone. Repair progressed(More)
The patterns of lung eicosanoid production were investigated in five different species by stimulating isolated lungs with calcium ionophore A23187 (10(-5) M). The species studied were the rat, ferret, hamster, guinea pig, and rabbit. The eicosanoids measured included the cyclooxygenase metabolites 6-keto-PGF1 alpha, TxB2, and PGE2 and the lipoxygenase(More)
Administration of the antifungal antibiotic amphotericin B (AmB, 1 mg/kg) to intact rats produced acute lung injury as indicated by the extravascular leakage of protein and water and histological examination. The injury was neutrophil independent because it occurred in neutropenic rats. AmB produced vasoconstriction and injury in isolated lungs perfused(More)
The role of leukotrienes in the mechanism of hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) is controversial. To determine whether leukotriene C4 (LTC4) was produced during HPV, LTC4 levels were measured in individual samples of lung tissue, lung bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), and blood perfusate in isolated perfused lungs ventilated with normoxic or(More)
This investigation characterizes the atrial proliferative response following partial ventricular amputation in adult newts. Newts processed for light microscopic autoradiography were given either a single injection (SI) of 3H-thymidine 1 hr before fixation and killed at intervals up to 25 days after ventricular wounding or were given six injections (MU),(More)
When collecting subjective human ratings of items, it can be difficult to measure and enforce data quality due to task subjectivity and lack of insight into how judges' arrive at each rating decision. To address this, we propose requiring judges to provide a specific type of rationale underlying each rating decision. We evaluate this approach in the domain(More)
ARDS is a relatively common disorder whose high mortality has changed little over the past few years. Management remains supportive in essence, consisting of careful ventilatory management and attention to fluid balance and nutritional needs. Certain complications, especially sepsis, need to be prevented if possible. Currently, there is no pharmacologic(More)
Alveolar transfer of eicosanoids was studied in the rat after instillation of [3H] prostaglandins, leukotrienes, and arachidonate into the distal airways. The percentage of originally added label remaining in lung or lavage was determined 2 min after instillation, with the remainder of the label having been transferred out of the lung. Peptidoleukotrienes(More)