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The Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (Version 11; BIS-11; Patton, Stanford, & Barratt, 1995) is a gold-standard measure that has been influential in shaping current theories of impulse control, and has played a key role in studies of impulsivity and its biological, psychological, and behavioral correlates. Psychometric research on the structure of the BIS-11,(More)
OBJECTIVES Numerous studies have shown that individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) display reduced performances on neuropsychological tests, although most prior research has not adequately accounted for comorbidities or performance validity concerns that are common in this population and could partially account for the observed neurocognitive(More)
BACKGROUND Amotivation, or decisional anhedonia, is a prominent and disabling feature of depression. However, this aspect of depression remains understudied, and no prior work has applied objective laboratory tests of motivation in both unipolar and bipolar depression. METHODS We assessed motivation deficits using a Progressive Ratio Task (PRT) that(More)
IMPORTANCE Structural brain abnormalities are prominent in psychotic disorders, including schizophrenia. However, it is unclear when aberrations emerge in the disease process and if such deficits are present in association with less severe psychosis spectrum (PS) symptoms in youth. OBJECTIVE To investigate the presence of structural brain abnormalities in(More)
BACKGROUND Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is applied in investigation of brain biomarkers for neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders. However, the quality of DTI measurements, like other neuroimaging techniques, is susceptible to several confounding factors (e.g., motion, eddy currents), which have only recently come under scrutiny. These(More)
OBJECTIVE Disruption of executive function is present in many neuropsychiatric disorders. However, determining the specificity of executive dysfunction across these disorders is challenging given high comorbidity of conditions. Here the authors investigate executive system deficits in association with dimensions of psychiatric symptoms in youth using a(More)
Increasingly, the effects of copy number variation (CNV) in the genome on brain function and behaviors are recognized as means to elucidate pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders. Such studies require large samples and we characterized the neurocognitive profile of two cohorts of individuals with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS), the most common CNV(More)
As the human brain develops, it increasingly supports the coordinated synchronization and control of activity. The role of white matter in this coordination is poorly understood, nor is it easy to quantify how such structure emerges across development. We use a network representation of diffusion imaging data to show the optimization of white matter(More)
Adolescence is marked by rapid development of executive function. Mounting evidence suggests that executive function in adults may be driven by dynamic control of neurophysiological processes. Yet, how these dynamics evolve over adolescence and contribute to cognitive development is unknown. Using a novel dynamic graph approach in which each moment in time(More)
BACKGROUND Sustained high-level cognitive performance is of paramount importance for the success of space missions, which involve environmental, physiological, and psychological stressors that may affect brain functions. Despite subjective symptom reports of cognitive fluctuations in spaceflight, the nature of neurobehavioral functioning in space has not(More)