Tyler J Stevenson

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Variation in environmental factors such as day length and social context greatly affects reproductive behavior and the brain areas that regulate these behaviors. One such behavior is song in songbirds, which males use to attract a mate during the breeding season. In these species the absence of a potential mate leads to an increase in the number of songs(More)
Temperate zone animals exhibit seasonal variation in reproductive physiology. In most cases, seasonal changes in reproductive states are regulated by changes in GnRH1 secretion, rather than synthesis, from the preoptic area (POA)/anterior hypothalamus. An important exception occurs in some songbirds that become photorefractory to the stimulatory effects of(More)
In many seasonally reproducing animals, the experience of prolonged exposure to constant photoperiods results in the induction of a state of photorefractoriness, which is defined as a lack of responsiveness to a previously stimulatory photoperiod. The physiological and genetic processes that control photorefractoriness are not well understood; however, the(More)
The rhythm of life on earth is shaped by seasonal changes in the environment. Plants and animals show profound annual cycles in physiology, health, morphology, behaviour and demography in response to environmental cues. Seasonal biology impacts ecosystems and agriculture, with consequences for humans and biodiversity. Human populations show robust annual(More)
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone 1 (GnRH1) is a key regulator of the reproductive neuroendocrine system in vertebrates. Recent developments have suggested that GnRH1 neurons exhibit far greater plasticity at the cellular and molecular levels than previously thought. Furthermore, there is growing evidence that sub-populations of GnRH1 neurons in the preoptic(More)
In seasonally breeding vertebrates, changes in day length induce categorically distinct behavioral and reproductive phenotypes via thyroid hormone-dependent mechanisms. Winter photoperiods inhibit reproductive neuroendocrine function but cannot sustain this inhibition beyond 6 mo, ensuring vernal reproductive recrudescence. This genomic plasticity suggests(More)
In all vertebrates, at least two forms of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) are present: GnRH-I and GnRH-II. GnRH-I directly influences the reproductive axis whereas the function of GnRH-II is less clear. The present experimental objectives were to determine the effect(s) of male social cues on the peripheral and neural responses of female house(More)
Production of T(3) in the mediobasal hypothalamus is critical for regulation of seasonal reproductive physiology. Type 2 iodothyronine deiodinase (DIO2) and DIO3 enzymes catalyze the prohormone T(4) into biologically-active T(3) and biologically-inactive rT(3), respectively. In several seasonally-breeding vertebrates, DIO2 and DIO3 expression is implicated(More)
Animals' lives are typically subdivided into distinct stages, some of which (e.g. breeding) contribute to fitness through enhancing current reproductive success, and some of which (e.g. molting and migration in birds; hibernation in mammals) contribute to fitness through enhancing survival and, therefore, future reproductive opportunities. There is often a(More)
Emotional behaviors are influenced by the circadian timing system. Circadian disruptions are associated with depressive-like symptoms in clinical and preclinical populations. Circadian rhythm robustness declines markedly with aging and may contribute to susceptibility to emotional dysregulation in aged individuals. The present experiments used a model of(More)