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Most of the modern communication protocols use some error detection algorithms in digital Cyclic codes are not only simple to implement but have the benefit of being particularly well (2) Peterson, W. W. and Brown, D. T. (January 1961). A cyclic redundancy check (CRC) is an error-detecting code commonly used in digital The CRC was invented by W. Wesley(More)
BACKGROUND The emergence of artemisinin-resistant Plasmodium falciparum in Southeast Asia threatens malaria treatment efficacy. Mutations in a kelch protein encoded on P. falciparum chromosome 13 (K13) have been associated with resistance in vitro and in field samples from Cambodia. METHODS P. falciparum infections from artesunate efficacy trials in(More)
OBJECTIVE Awake craniotomy (AC) has seen an expanded role in brain tumor surgery over the past few decades. AC allows intraoperative cortical mapping and the continuous assessment of neurophysiological parameters, which are otherwise unattainable under general anesthesia (GA). The ability of AC to analyze eloquent brain areas makes it a powerful method for(More)
Confirmation of artemisinin-delayed parasite clearance in Plasmodium falciparum along the Thai-Myanmar border has inspired a global response to contain and monitor drug resistance to avert the disastrous consequences of a potential spread to Africa. However, resistance data from Myanmar are sparse, particularly from high-risk areas where limited health(More)
Background Drug-resistant tuberculosis threatens recent gains in the treatment of tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection worldwide. A widespread epidemic of extensively drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis is occurring in South Africa, where cases have increased substantially since 2002. The factors driving this rapid increase have not(More)