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Most of the modern communication protocols use some error detection algorithms in digital Cyclic codes are not only simple to implement but have the benefit of being particularly well (2) Peterson, W. W. and Brown, D. T. (January 1961). A cyclic redundancy check (CRC) is an error-detecting code commonly used in digital The CRC was invented by W. Wesley(More)
Recently, 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) has been utilized as an adjuvant to the surgical resection of primary brain tumors and metastases. We conducted a systematic review of the literature to further understand the role of 5-ALA in neurosurgery. Our goal was to identify the utility of 5-ALA during resection by evaluating its sensitivity and specificity for(More)
BACKGROUND The emergence of artemisinin-resistant Plasmodium falciparum in Southeast Asia threatens malaria treatment efficacy. Mutations in a kelch protein encoded on P. falciparum chromosome 13 (K13) have been associated with resistance in vitro and in field samples from Cambodia. METHODS P. falciparum infections from artesunate efficacy trials in(More)
Prepulse inhibition (PPI) of startle occurs when intensity stimuli precede stronger startle-inducing stimuli by 10-1000 ms. PPI deficits are found in individuals with schizophrenia and other psychiatric disorders, and they correlate with other cognitive impairments. Animal research and clinical studies have demonstrated that both PPI and cognitive function(More)
While the presence of inorganic carbon in the form of (bi)carbonate has been known to be important for activity of Photosystem II (PSII), the vast majority of studies on this "bicarbonate effect" have been limited to in vitro studies of isolated thylakoid membranes and PSII complexes. Here we report an in vivo requirement for bicarbonate that is both(More)
Confirmation of artemisinin-delayed parasite clearance in Plasmodium falciparum along the Thai-Myanmar border has inspired a global response to contain and monitor drug resistance to avert the disastrous consequences of a potential spread to Africa. However, resistance data from Myanmar are sparse, particularly from high-risk areas where limited health(More)
A phosphorothioate oligodeoxynucleotide that is complementary (antisense) to the initiation region of the rev gene of HIV-1 causes hypergammaglobulinemia and splenomegaly in mice, and it induces B cell proliferation and differentiation in mouse spleen mononuclear cells (SMNCs) and human peripheral blood mononuclear cells in vitro. The current studies were(More)