Ty Dale Troutman

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Toll like receptors (TLRs) use Toll-IL-1 receptor (TIR) domain-containing adapters, such as myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88) and TIR domain-containing adapter inducing IFN-β (TRIF), to induce activation of transcription factors, including NF-κB, MAP kinases, and IFN regulatory factors. TLR signaling also leads to activation of PI3K,(More)
Activation of pattern recognition receptors on dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages leads to secretion of cytokines that control differentiation of CD4(+) T cells. The current understanding is that interleukin-6 (IL-6) in combination with transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) leads to generation of T helper 17 (Th17) lineage cells. Here, we have discovered(More)
Pathogenic infections and tissue injuries trigger the assembly of inflammasomes, cytosolic protein complexes that activate caspase-1, leading to cleavage of pro-IL-1β and pro-IL-18 and to pyroptosis, a proinflammatory cell death program. Although microbial recognition by Toll-like receptors (TLRs) is known to induce the synthesis of the major caspase-1(More)
TLRs are a family of pattern recognition receptors that recognize conserved molecular structures/products from a wide variety of microbes. Following recognition of ligands, TLRs recruit signaling adapters to initiate a pro-inflammatory signaling cascade culminating in the activation of several transcription factor families. Additionally, TLR signals lead to(More)
Affinity and dose of T cell receptor (TCR) interaction with antigens govern the magnitude of CD4+ T cell responses, but questions remain regarding the quantitative translation of TCR engagement into downstream signals. We find that while the response of mouse CD4+ T cells to antigenic stimulation is bimodal, activated cells exhibit analog responses(More)
The role of antigen-specific secretory IgA (SIgA) has been studied extensively, whereas there is a limited body of evidence regarding the contribution of non-specific SIgA to innate immune defenses against invading pathogens. In this study, we evaluated the effects of non-specific SIgA against infection with Vibrio cholerae O139 strain MO10 and biofilm(More)
Dendritic cells (DCs) function as professional antigen presenting cells and are critical for linking innate immune responses to the induction of adaptive immunity. Many current cancer DC vaccine strategies rely on differentiating DCs, feeding them tumor antigens ex vivo, and infusing them into patients. Importantly, this strategy relies on prior knowledge(More)
Although macrophages can be polarized to distinct phenotypes in vitro with individual ligands, in vivo they encounter multiple signals that control their varied functions in homeostasis, immunity, and disease. Here, we identify roles of Rev-erb nuclear receptors in regulating responses of mouse macrophages to complex tissue damage signals and wound repair.(More)
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