Twan Lammers

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Motor evoked responses to focal transcranial magnetic stimulation were investigated over the unaffected hemisphere in 15 patients with hemiparesis after ischaemic stroke and compared with data from normal control subjects. Whereas responses to muscles ipsilateral to the stimulated hemisphere could only be elicited at maximal intensities in two out of 12(More)
Copolymers of N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide (HPMA) are prototypic and well-characterized polymeric drug carriers that have been broadly implemented in the delivery of anticancer therapeutics. To demonstrate that polymers, as liposomes, can be used for simultaneously delivering multiple chemotherapeutic agents to tumors in vivo, we have synthesized and(More)
Many different systems and strategies have been evaluated for drug targeting to tumors over the years. Routinely used systems include liposomes, polymers, micelles, nanoparticles and antibodies, and examples of strategies are passive drug targeting, active drug targeting to cancer cells, active drug targeting to endothelial cells and triggered drug(More)
The archaeal transcriptional initiation machinery closely resembles core elements of the eukaryal polymerase II system. However, apart from the established basal archaeal transcription system, little is known about the modulation of gene expression in archaea. At present, no obvious eukaryal-like transcriptional regulators have been identified in archaea.(More)
Drug targeting systems are nanometre-sized carrier materials designed for improving the biodistribution of systemically applied (chemo)therapeutics. Various different tumour-targeted nanomedicines have been evaluated over the years, and clear evidence is currently available for substantial improvement of the therapeutic index of anticancer agents. Here, we(More)
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been studied for drug, antigen and nucleic acid delivery both in vitro and in vivo. Due to their nano-needle structure, they are supposed to cross the plasma membrane and enter directly into the cytoplasm likely upon an endocytosis-independent mechanism without inducing cell death. In this study, two cationically functionalized(More)
Angiogenesis is essential for the development of malignant tumors and provides important targets for tumor diagnosis and therapy. To noninvasively assess the angiogenic profile of tumors, novel alpha(v)beta(3) integrin-targeted ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide particles (USPIOs) were designed and their specific uptake by endothelial cells was(More)
As an emerging research direction, nanomedicine has been increasingly utilized to treat inflammatory diseases. In this head-to-head comparison study, four established nanomedicine formulations of dexamethasone, including liposomes (L-Dex), core-cross-linked micelles (M-Dex), slow releasing polymeric prodrugs (P-Dex-slow), and fast releasing polymeric(More)
Nanomedicine formulations aim to improve the biodistribution and the target site accumulation of systemically administered (chemo)therapeutic agents. Many different types of nanomedicines have been evaluated over the years, including for instance liposomes, polymers, micelles and antibodies, and a significant amount of evidence has been obtained showing(More)
Enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) and the (over-) expression of angiogenesis-related surface receptors are key features of tumor blood vessels. As a consequence, EPR-mediated passive and Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) and Asn-Gly-Arg (NGR) based active tumor targeting have received considerable attention in the last couple of years. Using several different in(More)