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The effects of acute nicotine (0.5 mg/kg, s.c.) on dopamine (DA) metabolism and Fos protein expression in striatal and limbic areas of rats on the seventh day of chronic nicotine infusion (4 mg. kg(-1). d(-1)) and after 24 or 72 hr withdrawal were investigated. In saline-infused rats, acute nicotine elevated striatal and limbic 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic(More)
The aim of the study was to investigate the importance of the interaction between central dopaminergic and cholinergic mechanisms for ethanol reinforcement. This was done by comparing the effects of nicotine on locomotor activity and release of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens of the alcohol-preferring Alko Alcohol (AA) and alcohol-avoiding alko(More)
1. The effect of ambient temperature on the nicotine-induced (0.3, 0.5 or 0.8 mg kg(-1) s.c.) changes of the striatal concentrations of dopamine (DA) and its metabolites 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and homovanillic acid (HVA) was studied in freely-moving rats by in vivo microdialysis. 2. At the ambient temperature of 30 - 33 degrees C, but not at(More)
The effects of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) agonist epibatidine on the extracellular concentrations of dopamine (DA) and its metabolites 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and homovanillic acid (HVA) in the dorsal (caudate-putamen) and the ventral striatum (nucleus accumbens) of freely-moving male Wistar rats were studied by in vivo(More)
Using Fos protein immunohistochemistry, we have studied the effects of acute nicotine (0.5 mg/kg s.c.) and nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) antagonists in eleven rat brain areas. Acute nicotine elevated Fos-like immunostaining (Fos IS) significantly in all studied areas except the medial prefrontal cortex. Nicotine increased the Fos IS in cortical,(More)
To study the cholinergic regulation of hypothalamic paraventricular (PVN) and supraoptic (SON) nuclei and interpeduncular nucleus (IPN) we investigated the effects of acute nicotine (0.5 mg/kg, SC, 60 min) on Fos-like immunostaining (IS) during chronic nicotine and its withdrawal in rats. Nicotine or saline was infused to rats via osmotic minipumps (4(More)
Employing data from 2,327 venture capital investments in U.S. information and communications technology companies between 1982 and 2000, this paper contributes to the understanding of the financing strategies and the valuation of privately held start-up companies, and the investment selection strategies of venture capitalists. From the theoretical(More)
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