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Measurements of angular position and velocity vectors of the eye in three human and three monkey subjects showed that: (1) position vectors lie roughly in a single plane, in accordance with Listing's law, between and during saccades; (2) primary position of the eye is often far from the centre of the oculomotor range. (3) saccades have nearly-fixed rotation(More)
The four-component rotational operators called quaternions, which represent eye rotations in terms of their axes and angles, have several advantages over other representations of eye position (such as Fick coordinates): they provide easy computations, symmetry, a simple form for Listing's law, and useful three-dimensional plots of eye movements. In this(More)
When visually fixating targets on an isovergence surface, the position of each eye was constrained to a plane. Thus, Listing's law holds during vergence. The planes were, however, rotated temporally with respect to those when viewing distant targets. The effect of this rotation was to produce a torsion which depended on eye elevation; extorsion of the two(More)
1. Kinematic constraints were examined in static eye and head positions after large gaze shifts to visual targets. Three-dimensional eye and head rotations were measured in six adult human subjects by the use of the magnetic field search coil technique. 2. Eye positions in space were found to obey Donder's law; i.e., for any given gaze direction there was a(More)
1. This paper develops three-dimensional models for the vestibuloocular reflex (VOR) and the internal feedback loop of the saccadic system. The models differ qualitatively from previous, one-dimensional versions, because the commutative algebra used in previous models does not apply to the three-dimensional rotations of the eye. 2. The hypothesis that eye(More)
Recently, using event-related functional MRI (fMRI), we located a bilateral region in the human posterior parietal cortex (retIPS) that topographically represents and updates targets for saccades and pointing movements in eye-centered coordinates. To generate movements, this spatial information must be integrated with the selected effector. We now tested(More)
1. The vestibuloocular reflex (VOR) was examined in four alert monkeys during rotations of the head about torsional, vertical, horizontal, and intermediate axes. Eye positions and axes were recorded in three dimensions (3-D). Visual targets were used to optimize gaze stabilization. 2. Axes of eye rotation during slow phases showed small but systematic(More)
In humans, functional imaging studies have demonstrated a homologue of the macaque motion complex, MT+ [suggested to contain both middle temporal (MT) and medial superior temporal (MST)], in the ascending limb of the inferior temporal sulcus. In the macaque monkey, motion-sensitive areas MT and MST are adjacent in the superior temporal sulcus.(More)
Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we examined the signal in parietal regions that were selectively activated during delayed pointing to flashed visual targets and determined whether this signal was dependent on the fixation position of the eyes. Delayed pointing activated a bilateral parietal area in the intraparietal sulcus (rIPS),(More)