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Reach errors may be broadly classified into errors arising from unpredictable changes in target location, called target errors, and errors arising from miscalibration of internal models (e.g., when prisms alter visual feedback or a force field alters limb dynamics), called execution errors. Execution errors may be caused by miscalibration of dynamics (e.g.,(More)
Adaptation is sometimes viewed as a process in which the nervous system learns to predict and cancel effects of a novel environment, returning movements to near baseline (unperturbed) conditions. An alternate view is that cancellation is not the goal of adaptation. Rather, the goal is to maximize performance in that environment. If performance criteria are(More)
We propose a highly versatile and programmable nanolitre droplet-based platform that accepts an unlimited number of sample plugs from a multi-well plate, performs digitization of these sample plugs into smaller daughter droplets and subsequent synchronization-free, robust injection of multiple reagents into the sample daughter droplets on-demand. This(More)
Nanomaterials can be synthesized from a wide range of material systems in numerous morphologies, creating an extremely diverse portfolio. As result of this tunability, these materials are emerging as a new class of nanotherapeutics and imaging agents. One particularly interesting nanomaterial is the gold nanoparticle. Due to its inherent biocompatibility(More)
We present a continuous-flow droplet-based digital Enzyme-Linked Oligonucleotide Hybridization Assay (droplet digital ELOHA) for sensitive detection and absolute quantification of RNA molecules. Droplet digital ELOHA incorporates direct hybridization and single enzyme reaction via the formation of single probe-RNA-probe (enzyme) complex on magnetic beads.(More)
Combinatorial droplet microfluidic devices with programmable microfluidic valves have recently emerged as a viable approach for performing multiplexed experiments in microfluidic droplets. However, the serial operation in these devices restricts their throughput. To address this limitation, we present a parallelized combinatorial droplet device that(More)
Here we provide details for the simulation results that were presented in the main text. We begin with the optimal control problem with the linear model of dynamics and consider the issue of model uncertainty. We analyze the robustness of the results (over-compensation, speed changes, segmentation) with respect to parameter values. Next, we consider the(More)
Traditionally, the objective of the motor controller in the brain is thought to be to guide the limb to a desired trajectory while making a reaching movement. The controller in traditional models, thus, adapts internal models of the body and the environment to guide the limb to a 'desired trajectory'. However, there is significant evidence suggesting that(More)
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