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Reach errors may be broadly classified into errors arising from unpredictable changes in target location, called target errors, and errors arising from miscalibration of internal models (e.g., when prisms alter visual feedback or a force field alters limb dynamics), called execution errors. Execution errors may be caused by miscalibration of dynamics (e.g.,(More)
Adaptation is sometimes viewed as a process in which the nervous system learns to predict and cancel effects of a novel environment, returning movements to near baseline (unperturbed) conditions. An alternate view is that cancellation is not the goal of adaptation. Rather, the goal is to maximize performance in that environment. If performance criteria are(More)
We propose a highly versatile and programmable nanolitre droplet-based platform that accepts an unlimited number of sample plugs from a multi-well plate, performs digitization of these sample plugs into smaller daughter droplets and subsequent synchronization-free, robust injection of multiple reagents into the sample daughter droplets on-demand. This(More)
In this article we present a novel droplet microfluidic chip enabling amplification-free detection of single pathogenic cells. The device streamlines multiple functionalities to carry out sample digitization, cell lysis, probe-target hybridization for subsequent fluorescent detection. A peptide nucleic acid fluorescence resonance energy transfer probe (PNA(More)
Digital nucleic acid detection is rapidly becoming a popular technique for ultra-sensitive and quantitative detection of nucleic acid molecules in a wide range of biomedical studies. Digital polymerase chain reaction (PCR) remains the most popular way of conducting digital nucleic acid detection. However, due to the need for thermocycling, digital PCR is(More)
There is an increasing demand for novel high-throughput screening (HTS) technologies in the pharmaceutical and biotechnological industries. The robotic sample-handling techniques currently used in these industries, although fast, are still limited to operating in multiwell plates with the sample volumes per reaction in the microliter regime. Digital(More)
We present a continuous-flow droplet-based digital Enzyme-Linked Oligonucleotide Hybridization Assay (droplet digital ELOHA) for sensitive detection and absolute quantification of RNA molecules. Droplet digital ELOHA incorporates direct hybridization and single enzyme reaction via the formation of single probe-RNA-probe (enzyme) complex on magnetic beads.(More)
Single-molecule free solution hydrodynamic separation (SML-FSHS) cohesively integrates cylindrical illumination confocal spectroscopy with free solution hydrodynamic separation. This technique enables single-molecule analysis of size separated DNA with 100% mass detection efficiency, high sizing resolution and wide dynamic range, surpassing the performance(More)
Traditionally, the objective of the motor controller in the brain is thought to be to guide the limb to a desired trajectory while making a reaching movement. The controller in traditional models, thus, adapts internal models of the body and the environment to guide the limb to a 'desired trajectory'. However, there is significant evidence suggesting that(More)