Turner Whitted

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As the visual complexity of computer generated scenes continues to increase, the use of classical modeling primitives as display primitives becomes less appealing. Customization of display algorithms, the conflict between object order and image order rendering and the reduced usefulness of object coherence in the presence of extreme complexity are all(More)
Hierarchical representations of 3-dimensional objects are both time and space efficient. They typically consist of trees whose branches represent bounding volumes and whose terminal nodes represent primitive object elements (usually polygons). This paper describes a method whereby the object space is represented entirely by a hierarchical data structure(More)
What’s in a game? Writers of early 2D computer games seemed obsessed with creating meaningful patterns on low-resolution screens in real time with essentially no memory. The tight link between game programs and game console hardware compelled programmers to write games in assembly language with little or no intervening system software. Such was the skill(More)
This paper describes an implementation of Cook's "shade trees" in which shaders are described as networks of modules, building blocks, whose connections can be defined interactively.The high level interface to the shaders is a graphical editor which permits users to construct complex shaders by connecting shading elements in a network, in effect a graphical(More)
This paper presents three scan line methods for drawing pictures of parametrically defined surfaces. A scan line algorithm is characterized by the order in which it generates the picture elements of the image. These are generated left to right, top to bottom in much the same way as a picture is scanned out on a TV screen. Parametrically defined surfaces are(More)
One of the main goals in realistic rendering is to generate images that are indistinguishable from photographs – but how do observers decide whether an image is photographic or computer-generated? If this perceptual process were understood, then rendering algorithms could be developed to directly target these cues. In this paper we introduce an experimental(More)
This algorithm draws lines on a gray-scale raster display by dragging a “brush” along the path of the line. The style of the line is determined by the properties of the brush. An anti-aliasing calculation is performed once for the brush itself and thereafter only a trivial additional operation is needed for each pixel through which the brush is(More)
We describe an augmented reality, optical see-through display based on a DMD chip with an extremely fast (16 kHz) binary update rate. We combine the techniques of post-rendering 2-D offsets and just-in-time tracking updates with a novel modulation technique for turning binary pixels into perceived gray scale. These processing elements, implemented in an(More)
The conventional procedure for generating shaded images of curved surfaces is to approximate each surface element by a mosaic of polygons and to then apply one of several established polygon display algorithms. The method described here produces an excellent approximation of bi-cubic parametric surfaces in scan line order. Each surface patch is described in(More)
We illustrate two enhancements to procedural geometric models which allow autonomous procedures to jointly satisfy mutual constraints. One of the techniques adds communications paths between procedures which may affect one another. Conflicts are resolved by modifying communicating procedures as they execute.The second technique is a generalization of widely(More)