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To accurately render a scene, global illumination information that affects the intensity of each pixel of the image must be known at the time the intensity is calculated. In a simplified form, this information is stored in a tree of “rays” extending from the viewer to the first surface encountered and from there to other surfaces and to the(More)
Hierarchical representations of 3-dimensional objects are both time and space efficient. They typically consist of trees whose branches represent bounding volumes and whose terminal nodes represent primitive object elements (usually polygons). This paper describes a method whereby the object space is represented entirely by a hierarchical data structure(More)
As the visual complexity of computer generated scenes continues to increase, the use of classical modeling primitives as display primitives becomes less appealing. Customization of display algorithms, the conflict between object order and image order rendering and the reduced usefulness of object coherence in the presence of extreme complexity are all(More)
One of the main goals in realistic rendering is to generate images that are indistinguishable from photographs – but how do observers decide whether an image is photographic or computer-generated? If this perceptual process were understood, then rendering algorithms could be developed to directly target these cues. In this paper we introduce an experimental(More)
We describe a set of utility routines for 3-D shaded display which allow us to create raster scan display systems for various experimental and production applications. The principal feature of this system is a flexible scan conversion processor that can simultaneously manage several different object types. Communications between the scan conversion routine(More)
This algorithm draws lines on a gray-scale raster display by dragging a “brush” along the path of the line. The style of the line is determined by the properties of the brush. An anti-aliasing calculation is performed once for the brush itself and thereafter only a trivial additional operation is needed for each pixel through which the brush is(More)
We illustrate two enhancements to procedural geometric models which allow autonomous procedures to jointly satisfy mutual constraints. One of the techniques adds communications paths between procedures which may affect one another. Conflicts are resolved by modifying communicating procedures as they execute.The second technique is a generalization of widely(More)
We describe an augmented reality, optical see-through display based on a DMD chip with an extremely fast (16 kHz) binary update rate. We combine the techniques of post-rendering 2-D offsets and just-in-time tracking updates with a novel modulation technique for turning binary pixels into perceived gray scale. These processing elements, implemented in an(More)
This paper presents three scan line methods for drawing pictures of parametrically defined surfaces. A scan line algorithm is characterized by the order in which it generates the picture elements of the image. These are generated left to right, top to bottom in much the same way as a picture is scanned out on a TV screen. Parametrically defined surfaces are(More)