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The proposal that nitric oxide (NO) or its reactant products mediate toxicity in brain remains controversial in part because of the use of nonselective agents that block NO formation in neuronal, glial, and vascular compartments. In mutant mice deficient in neuronal NO synthase (NOS) activity, infarct volumes decreased significantly 24 and 72 hours after(More)
The initial phase in the development of a migraine is still poorly understood. Here, we describe a previously unknown signaling pathway between stressed neurons and trigeminal afferents during cortical spreading depression (CSD), the putative cause of migraine aura and headache. CSD caused neuronal Pannexin1 (Panx1) megachannel opening and caspase-1(More)
Stroke, a brain attack, is the third leading cause of death in the Western world. Worldwide, about 5.5 million people died from stroke in 1999 — approximately 10% of all deaths. There are more than 3.5 million survivors in the United States alone, and the disease remains a major cause of disability. In practice,'stroke' refers to an umbrella of conditions(More)
OBJECTIVE Topiramate, valproate, propranolol, amitriptyline, and methysergide have been widely prescribed for migraine prophylaxis, but their mechanism or site of action is uncertain. Cortical spreading depression (CSD) has been implicated in migraine and as a headache trigger and can be evoked in experimental animals by electrical or chemical stimulation.(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Use of thrombolysis in stroke is limited by a short therapeutic window because delayed reperfusion may cause brain hemorrhage and edema. Available evidence suggests a role for superoxide, NO, and peroxynitrite in reperfusion-induced injury. However, depending on their cellular origin and interactions between them, these molecules may(More)
Pericytes are located at periphery of the microvessel wall and wrap it with their processes. They communicate with other cells of the neurovascular unit by direct contact or through signaling pathways and regulate several important microcirculatory functions. These include development and maintenance of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), distribution of the(More)
Here we show that ischemia induces sustained contraction of pericytes on microvessels in the intact mouse brain. Pericytes remain contracted despite successful reopening of the middle cerebral artery after 2 h of ischemia. Pericyte contraction causes capillary constriction and obstructs erythrocyte flow. Suppression of oxidative-nitrative stress relieves(More)
NeuN immunoreactivity is used as a specific marker for neurons. The number of NeuN-positive cells decreases under pathological conditions. This finding is usually considered as an evidence of neuronal loss. However, decrease in NeuN labeling may also be caused by depletion of the protein or loss of its antigenicity. Hence, we have investigated the(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE We previously reported that L-arginine infusion increased pial vessel diameter by nitric oxide-dependent mechanisms, improved regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) distal to middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion, and reduced infarction volume in spontaneously hypertensive rats when administered intraperitoneally before and after MCA(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Both necrotic and apoptotic cell death mechanisms are activated after cerebral ischemia. However, whether they are concomitantly active in the same cell or in discrete cell populations is not known. METHODS We investigated activation of both pathways at the cellular level in mice brains subjected to transient or permanent focal(More)