Turgay Dalkara

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NATURE REVIEWS | NEUROSCIENCE VOLUME 4 | MAY 2003 | 399 Stroke, a brain attack, is the third leading cause of death in the Western world. Worldwide, about 5.5 million people died from stroke in 1999 — approximately 10% of all deaths. There are more than 3.5 million survivors in the United States alone, and the disease remains a major cause of disability. In(More)
The proposal that nitric oxide (NO) or its reactant products mediate toxicity in brain remains controversial in part because of the use of nonselective agents that block NO formation in neuronal, glial, and vascular compartments. In mutant mice deficient in neuronal NO synthase (NOS) activity, infarct volumes decreased significantly 24 and 72 hours after(More)
OBJECTIVE Topiramate, valproate, propranolol, amitriptyline, and methysergide have been widely prescribed for migraine prophylaxis, but their mechanism or site of action is uncertain. Cortical spreading depression (CSD) has been implicated in migraine and as a headache trigger and can be evoked in experimental animals by electrical or chemical stimulation.(More)
Here we show that ischemia induces sustained contraction of pericytes on microvessels in the intact mouse brain. Pericytes remain contracted despite successful reopening of the middle cerebral artery after 2 h of ischemia. Pericyte contraction causes capillary constriction and obstructs erythrocyte flow. Suppression of oxidative-nitrative stress relieves(More)
The initial phase in the development of a migraine is still poorly understood. Here, we describe a previously unknown signaling pathway between stressed neurons and trigeminal afferents during cortical spreading depression (CSD), the putative cause of migraine aura and headache. CSD caused neuronal Pannexin1 (Panx1) megachannel opening and caspase-1(More)
Pericytes are located at periphery of the microvessel wall and wrap it with their processes. They communicate with other cells of the neurovascular unit by direct contact or through signaling pathways and regulate several important microcirculatory functions. These include development and maintenance of the blood–brain barrier (BBB), distribution of the(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Use of thrombolysis in stroke is limited by a short therapeutic window because delayed reperfusion may cause brain hemorrhage and edema. Available evidence suggests a role for superoxide, NO, and peroxynitrite in reperfusion-induced injury. However, depending on their cellular origin and interactions between them, these molecules may(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Reperfusion injury is one of the factors that unfavorably affects stroke outcome and shortens the window of opportunity for thrombolysis. Surges of nitric oxide (NO) and superoxide generation on reperfusion have been demonstrated. Concomitant generation of these radicals can lead to formation of the strong oxidant peroxynitrite during(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Failure of prompt motor recovery after spontaneous recirculation or thrombolytic therapy may be due to an unsatisfactory restoration of synaptic activity within cortex and/or blockade of electrical impulses at the severely ischemic subcortical region. METHODS Afferent, efferent, and synaptic activities were focally examined within(More)