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The relationship between anxious/depressed traits and neuromaturation remains largely unstudied. Characterizing this relationship during healthy neurodevelopment is critical to understanding processes associated with the emergence of child/adolescent onset mood/anxiety disorders. In this study, mixed-effects models were used to determine longitudinal(More)
We tested whether the N400 event-related potential (ERP) indexes the integration of semantic knowledge in the context or whether it indexes the inhibition of activated, but inappropriate, knowledge. A distractor-prime-target word sequence was presented in each trial. Subjects had to make semantic relatedness judgments on prime-target pairs. In the first(More)
Neuroendocrine theories of brain development hold testosterone as the predominant factor mediating sex-specific cortical growth and the ensuing lateralization of hemispheric function. However, studies to date have focussed on prenatal testosterone rather than pubertal changes in testosterone. Yet, animal studies have shown a high density of(More)
OBJECTIVE Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have delayed cortical maturation, evidenced by regionally specific slower cortical thinning. However, the relationship between cortical maturation and attention capacities in typically developing children is unknown. This study examines cortical thickness correlates of inattention(More)
Several reports have described cortical thickness (CTh) developmental trajectories, with conflicting results. Some studies have reported inverted-U shape curves with peaks of CTh in late childhood to adolescence, while others suggested predominant monotonic decline after age 6. In this study, we reviewed CTh developmental trajectories in the NIH MRI Study(More)
Humans and the great apes are the only species demonstrated to exhibit adrenarche, a key endocrine event associated with prepubertal increases in the adrenal production of androgens, most significantly dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and to a certain degree testosterone. Adrenarche also coincides with the emergence of the prosocial and neurobehavioral skills(More)
A subset of medulloblastomas, the most common brain tumor in children, is hypothesized to originate from granule neuron precursors (GNPs) in which the sonic hedgehog (SHH) pathway is over-activated. MXD3, a basic helix-look-helix zipper transcription factor of the MAD family, has been reported to be upregulated during postnatal cerebellar development and to(More)
Testosterone is thought to play a crucial role in mediating sexual differentiation of brain structures. Examinations of the cognitive effects of testosterone have also shown beneficial and potentially sex-specific effects on executive function and mnemonic processes. Yet these findings remain limited by an incomplete understanding of the critical timing and(More)
Humans and the great apes are the only species demonstrated to exhibit adrenarche, a key developmental event leading to increased production of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), suggesting that this hormone may play an important evolutionary role. Similarly, visual attention networks have been shown to evolve in a human-specific manner, with some anatomical(More)
Structural covariance, the examination of anatomic correlations between brain regions, has emerged recently as a valid and useful measure of developmental brain changes. Yet the exact biological processes leading to changes in covariance, and the relation between such covariance and behavior, remain largely unexplored. The steroid hormone testosterone(More)