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The relationship between anxious/depressed traits and neuromaturation remains largely unstudied. Characterizing this relationship during healthy neurodevelopment is critical to understanding processes associated with the emergence of child/adolescent onset mood/anxiety disorders. In this study, mixed-effects models were used to determine longitudinal(More)
OBJECTIVE Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have delayed cortical maturation, evidenced by regionally specific slower cortical thinning. However, the relationship between cortical maturation and attention capacities in typically developing children is unknown. This study examines cortical thickness correlates of inattention(More)
We tested whether the N400 event-related potential (ERP) indexes the integration of semantic knowledge in the context or whether it indexes the inhibition of activated, but inappropriate, knowledge. A distractor-prime-target word sequence was presented in each trial. Subjects had to make semantic relatedness judgments on prime-target pairs. In the first(More)
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) was applied to test the role of selected cortical regions in remediating sleep-deprivation-induced deficits in visual working memory (WM) performance. Three rTMS targets were chosen using a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)-identified network associated with sleep-deprivation-induced WM(More)
Neuroendocrine theories of brain development hold testosterone as the predominant factor mediating sex-specific cortical growth and the ensuing lateralization of hemispheric function. However, studies to date have focussed on prenatal testosterone rather than pubertal changes in testosterone. Yet, animal studies have shown a high density of(More)
Several reports have described cortical thickness (CTh) developmental trajectories, with conflicting results. Some studies have reported inverted-U shape curves with peaks of CTh in late childhood to adolescence, while others suggested predominant monotonic decline after age 6. In this study, we reviewed CTh developmental trajectories in the NIH MRI Study(More)
Humans and the great apes are the only species demonstrated to exhibit adrenarche, a key endocrine event associated with prepubertal increases in the adrenal production of androgens, most significantly dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and to a certain degree testosterone. Adrenarche also coincides with the emergence of the prosocial and neurobehavioral skills(More)
A subset of medulloblastomas, the most common brain tumor in children, is hypothesized to originate from granule neuron precursors (GNPs) in which the sonic hedgehog (SHH) pathway is over-activated. MXD3, a basic helix-look-helix zipper transcription factor of the MAD family, has been reported to be upregulated during postnatal cerebellar development and to(More)
This study examined whether brain responses to transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) would be amenable to classical conditioning. Motor cortex in human participants was stimulated with TMS pulses, which elicited a peripheral motor response in the form of a motor evoked potential (MEP). The TMS pulses were paired with audio-visual cues that served as(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate the extent to which subclinical variation in anxious/depressed psychopathology is associated with volume and age-related volumetric change of limbic structures in a longitudinal sample of healthy youths. METHODS Linear mixed-effects models were used to analyze longitudinal behavioral and neuroimaging data (up to 3 data points per(More)