Tuomo Sipola

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Modern web services face an increasing number of new threats. Logs are collected from almost all web servers, and for this reason analyzing them is beneficial when trying to prevent intrusions. Intrusive behavior often differs from the normal web traffic. This paper proposes a framework to find abnormal behavior from these logs.We compare random projection,(More)
The goal of this study is to detect anomalous queries from network logs using a dimensionality reduction framework. The fequencies of 2-grams in queries are extracted to a feature matrix. Dimensionality reduction is done by applying diffusion maps. The method is adaptive and thus does not need training before analysis. We tested the method with data that(More)
BACKGROUND Independent component analysis (ICA) has been often used to decompose fMRI data mostly for the resting-state, block and event-related designs due to its outstanding advantage. For fMRI data during free-listening experiences, only a few exploratory studies applied ICA. NEW METHOD For processing the fMRI data elicited by 512-s modern tango, a FFT(More)
BACKGROUND Compared to the waveform or spectrum analysis of event-related potentials (ERPs), time-frequency representation (TFR) has the advantage of revealing the ERPs time and frequency domain information simultaneously. As the human brain could be modeled as a complicated nonlinear system, it is interesting from the view of psychological knowledge to(More)
Dynamic web services are vulnerable to a multitude of intrusions that could be previously unknown. Server logs contain vast amounts of information about network traffic, and finding attacks from these logs improves the security of the services. In this research features are extracted from HTTP query parameters using 2-grams. We propose a framework that uses(More)
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) produces data about activity inside the brain, from which spatial maps can be extracted by independent component analysis (ICA). In datasets, there are n spatial maps that contain p voxels. The number of voxels is very high compared to the number of analyzed spatial maps. Clustering of the spatial maps is usually(More)
Information security has become a very important topic especially during the last years. Web services are becoming more complex and dynamic. This offers new possibilities for attackers to exploit vulnerabilities by inputting malicious queries or code. However, these attack attempts are often recorded in server logs. Analyzing these logs could be a way to(More)
Network security and intrusion detection are important in the modern world where communication happens via information networks. Traditional signature-based intrusion detection methods cannot find previously unknown attacks. On the other hand, algorithms used for anomaly detection often have black box qualities that are difficult to understand for people(More)
We apply the knowledge discovery process to the mapping of current topics in a particular field of science. We are interested in how articles form clusters and what are the contents of the found clusters. A framework involving web scraping, keyword extraction, dimensionality reduction and clustering using the diffusion map algorithm is presented. We use(More)
Time-frequency analysis is critical to study event-related potentials (ERPs) now. ERPs are usually generated through averaging over a number of trials, and such averaging limits the application of a nonlinear time-frequency analysis method—Hilbert-Huang transformation (HHT). This is because HHT usually requires very long recordings to sufficiently(More)