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Hyperestrogenemia and hypotestosteronemia have been observed in association with myocardial infarction (MI) and its risk factors. To determine whether these abnormalities may be prospective for MI, estradiol and testosterone, as well as risk factors for MI, were measured in 55 men undergoing angiography who had not previously had an MI. Testosterone (r =(More)
Although sex hormones appear to be importantly involved in the development of coronary heart disease, apparently no study has yet reported an alteration in an endogenous sex hormone level in relation to coronary heart disease in women. In an attempt to determine whether any sex hormone abnormality might be a factor in the development of myocardial(More)
Sex hormones are strongly associated with bone mineral density (BMD) in adult humans. Leptin, a hormonal product of the OB gene, also appears to be associated with BMD, but results from previous studies are conflicting. Most of the studies in this area have been in women and apparently none have simultaneously analyzed the relationship of estradiol,(More)
OBJECTIVE Accumulating evidence suggests that hyperandrogenemia may be a risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD) in women. The present study was carried out to test the hypothesis that hyperandrogenemia is associated with type 2 diabetes in women and thus may contribute to the increased risk of CHD in women with type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND(More)
OBJECTIVE AND DESIGN It has been hypothesized that risk factors for coronary heart disease in men are linked and that the underlying factor linking them may be an alteration in the sex hormone milieu. As a test of this hypothesis, sex hormones and fibrinogen, factor VII and plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1), hemostatic factors recently shown to be(More)
In order to test the hypothesis that an alteration in the sex hormone milieu may underlie risk factors for myocardial infarction, fasting serum sex hormones, ie, estradiol, testosterone, free testosterone, and androstenedione, were measured in 24 hypertensive and in 19 healthy postmenopausal women. The mean serum free testosterone level (P=0.01) and the(More)
Both a high renin-sodium profile and abnormal levels of sex hormones have been linked to myocardial infarction (MI) in men. The present study was carried out in men with hypertension to determine whether renin-sodium profile and sex hormone levels are related to each other. Renin-sodium profile, estradiol, testosterone, sex-hormone binding globulin (SHBG),(More)
The present study was carried out to explore the possible relation of plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), fibrinogen, and factor VII levels to other risk factors for coronary heart disease (CHD) and to serum sex hormone levels. The study group comprised 48 apparently healthy men. To avoid the confounding factor of obesity, correlations were(More)
Both hyperestrogenemia and hypotestosteronemia have been reported in association with myocardial infarction (MI) in men. It was previously observed that the serum testosterone concentration correlated negatively with the degree of coronary artery disease (CAD) in men who had never had a known MI. The present study investigated the relationship of sex(More)
Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) priming and subunit vaccine boosting strategies are urgently needed to improve the protective efficacy of BCG in adult population. However, the schedule of subunit vaccine boosting is not well investigated, especially the optimal immune responses and vaccine immunization schedules are still not clear. We(More)