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A mobile node in ad hoc networks may move arbitrarily and acts as a router and a host simultaneously. Such a characteristic makes nodes in MANET vulnerable to potential attacks. The black hole problem, in which some malicious nodes pretend to be intermediate nodes of a route to some given destinations and drop any packet that subsequently goes through it,(More)
Ad hoc networks are wireless networks with no fixed infrastructure. Each mobile node in the network functions as a router that discovers and maintains routes for other nodes. These nodes may move arbitrarily, therefore network topology changes frequently and unpredictably. Many routing protocols have been designed for ad hoc networks. However, most of these(More)
Due to the implicit characteristics of learning disabilities (LDs), the diagnosis of students with learning disabilities has long been a difficult issue. Artificial intelligence techniques like artificial neural network (ANN) and support vector machine (SVM) have been applied to the LD diagnosis problem with satisfactory outcomes. However, special education(More)
—Due to the implicit characteristics of learning disabilities (LD), the identification or diagnosis of students with learning disabilities has long been a difficult issue. In fact, there is little consensus about what is the best procedure to identify a person with LD. Instead, the procedures are based on empirical findings from scholarly research. In this(More)