Tully J Speaker

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A DNA vaccine for West Nile virus (WNV) was evaluated to determine whether its use could protect fish crows (Corvus ossifragus) from fatal WNV infection. Captured adult crows were given 0.5 mg of the DNA vaccine either orally or by intramuscular (IM) inoculation; control crows were inoculated or orally exposed to a placebo. After 6 weeks, crows were(More)
The capacity of an aqueous-based system of microencapsulation to enhance virus-specific humoral immune responses was evaluated in mice orally inoculated with noninfectious rotavirus (simian rotavirus strain RRV). Mice were orally inoculated with 1.75 or 0.35 microgram of inactivated RRV (iRRV) or microencapsulated iRRV. Sera, intestinal contents, and organ(More)
We have previously shown virus particles encapsulated in aqueous spermine alginate constructs retain immunogenicity and infectivity both in vitro and in vivo. However, because virions are complex structures with multiple reinforcing components, it was uncertain if isolated single proteins would retain functional integrity when similarly encapsulated. To(More)
Purified reovirus serotype 1, encapsulated in biodegradable aqueous microcapsules, was found to bypass maternal antibody passively transferred by suckling to neonates. Genetically identical, immunocompetent F1 scid/+ mice were generated by the reciprocal crosses of C.B17 scid/scid and normal congenic +/+ adult mice. The immunocompetent +/+ dams were either(More)
It was determined whether microencapsulation of rotavirus enhanced virus-specific immunity in mice. Combinations of several water-soluble anionic polymers and amines were tested for their capacity to form microcapsules which were stable in the presence of simulated gastric acid. Using the combinations of sodium alginate and spermine hydrochloride or sodium(More)
The capacity of microencapsulation to enhance the humoral immune response to rotavirus in the gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) of mice was determined by using a system of microencapsulation based on the ionic linkage of aqueous anionic polymers and an aqueous amine. Inoculation of mice with microencapsulated rotavirus enhanced the frequencies of(More)
The New York 1999 strain of West Nile virus (WNV) is nearly 100% fatal in the American crow (Corvus brachyrhynchos). We evaluated four WNV vaccine formulations in American crows, including intramuscular (i.m.) DNA vaccine, i.m. DNA vaccine with adjuvant, orally administered microencapsulated DNA vaccine, and i.m. killed vaccine. Neutralizing antibodies(More)
We previously found that aqueous-based microencapsulation enhanced virus-specific humoral immune responses after oral inoculation of mice. However, the mechanism by which microencapsulation enhances immunogenicity remains unclear. We found that spermine-alginate microcapsules were detected primarily in gut-associated dendritic cells (i.e. CD11c/CD18+, Ia+,(More)
This paper describes formulation of a model protein, horseradish peroxidase (HRP), in a water based microcapsule delivery system and demonstrates the utility of this delivery system for proteins. Aqueous solutions (1 mg/mL) of the enzyme were separately blended with aqueous solutions of the neutral sodium salt of the anionic polymer iota carrageenan (0.6 mM(More)
We determined the capacity of microcapsules formed by the combination of sodium alginate, an aqueous anionic polymer, and spermine hydrochloride, an aqueous cationic amine, to enhance protection against rotavirus challenge in mice. Adult BALB/c mice were orally inoculated with either free or microencapsulated rotavirus (simian rotavirus strain RRV) and(More)