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A survey of the occurrence of toxic blooms of cyanobacteria in Finnish fresh and coastal waters was made during 1985 and 1986. Toxicity of the freeze-dried water bloom samples was tested by mouse-bioassay (i.p.). Forty-four per cent (83/188) of the bloom samples were found to be lethally toxic. Hepatotoxic blooms (54) were almost twice as common as(More)
The purpose of the paper is to empirically study firms’ practises of knowledge and intellectual property (IP) management in customer–supplier relationships. The work applies the qualitative methodology of multiple case studies, and the material was collected in semi-structured interviews with management personnel at 36 organisations in Finland and in the(More)
Development projects for radical innovations are typically long in duration and, therefore, surrounded by a high level of technological, market, organizational and resource uncertainties. Various techniques have been developed in order to manage the uncertainties due to unpredictable future and to support managers in their strategic decision making during(More)
The paper describes findings from an interview study about intellectual property management practices in inter-organisational relationships. A total of 40 companies and public organisations in Finland and in the Netherlands were studied using semi-structured face-toface interviews. The organisations represented different sizes and fields of industry. About(More)
The paper describes findings from a multiple case study about innovation management challenges of a system integrator whose operation as a system integrator is characterised by a high demand of innovation and whose focus of integration capabilities is, accordingly, changing from component assembly to knowledge integration. The study involved six diverse(More)
We present systematic decision support for innovation management. At the core of our system is a dynamically evolving risk taxonomy that we map to either qualitative or quantitative decision processes. We describe several experiments that could advance the science behind innovation management. In the context of a portfolio of potential and actual service(More)
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