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Tandem affinity purification (TAP) allows for rapid and efficient purification of epitope-tagged protein complexes from crude extracts under native conditions. The method was established in yeast and has been successfully applied to other organisms, including mammals and trypanosomes. However, we found that the original method, which is based on the TAP(More)
To provide data necessary to study catabolite-linked transcriptional networks in Thermotoga maritima, we used full-genome DNA microarray analysis of global transcriptional responses to growth on glucose, lactose, and maltose in a chemostat. A much larger number of genes changed expression in cells grown on lactose than on maltose, each relative to genes(More)
Trypanosoma brucei is a vector borne, lethal protistan parasite of humans and livestock in sub-Saharan Africa. Antigenic variation of its cell surface coat enables the parasite to evade adaptive immune responses and to live freely in the blood of its mammalian hosts. The coat consists of ten million copies of variant surface glycoprotein (VSG) that is(More)
NFATp is one member of a family of transcriptional activators that regulate the expression of cytokine genes. To study mechanisms of NFATp transcriptional activation, we established a reconstituted transcription system consisting of human components that is responsive to activation by full-length NFATp. The TATA-associated factor (TAF(II)) subunits of the(More)
Duplication of transporter genes is apparent in the genome sequence of the hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga maritima. The physiological impacts of these duplications are not well understood, so we used the bacterium's two putative maltose transporters to begin a study of the evolutionary relationship between a transporter's function and the control of(More)
Phosphatidylinositol (PI) 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP(2)), generated by PI 4-phosphate 5-kinase (PIP5K), regulates many critical cellular events. PIP(2) is also known to mediate plasma membrane localization of the Toll/IL-1 receptor domain-containing adaptor protein (TIRAP), required for the MyD88-dependent Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 signaling pathway. Microglia(More)
Trypanosoma brucei harbors a unique multifunctional RNA polymerase (pol) I which transcribes, in addition to ribosomal RNA genes, the gene units encoding the major cell surface antigens variant surface glycoprotein and procyclin. In consequence, this RNA pol I is recruited to three structurally different types of promoters and sequestered to two distinct(More)
The vector-borne, protistan parasite Trypanosoma brucei is the only known eukaryote with a multifunctional RNA polymerase I that, in addition to ribosomal genes, transcribes genes encoding the parasite's major cell-surface proteins-the variant surface glycoprotein (VSG) and procyclin. In the mammalian bloodstream, antigenic variation of the VSG coat is the(More)
A unique characteristic of the protistan parasite Trypanosoma brucei is a multifunctional RNA polymerase I which, in addition to synthesizing rRNA as in other eukaryotes, transcribes gene units encoding the major cell surface antigens variant surface glycoprotein and procyclin. Thus far, purification of this enzyme has revealed nine orthologues of known(More)
Monoallelic expression within a gene family is found in pathogens exhibiting antigenic variation and in mammalian olfactory neurons. Trypanosoma brucei, a lethal parasite living in the human bloodstream, expresses variant surface glycoprotein (VSG) from 1 of 15 bloodstream expression sites (BESs) by virtue of a multifunctional RNA polymerase I. The active(More)