Tsz Kan Fung

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The role of cyclin B-CDC2 as M phase-promoting factor (MPF) is well established, but the precise functions of cyclin A remain a crucial outstanding issue. Here we show that down-regulation of cyclin A induces a G2 phase arrest through a checkpoint-independent inactivation of cyclin B-CDC2 by inhibitory phosphorylation. The phenotype is rescued by expressing(More)
Cyclin A is particularly interesting among the cyclin family because it can activate two different cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) and functions in both S phase and mitosis. An embryonic form of cyclin A that is only essential for spermatogenesis is also present in some organisms. In S phase, phosphorylation of components of the DNA replication machinery(More)
Cyclin A is destroyed during mitosis by the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Like cyclin B, a destruction box (D-box) motif is required for the destruction of cyclin A. However, cyclin A degradation is more complicated than cyclin B because cyclin A's D-box motif is more extensive and proteolysis involves complex signaling in some organisms. In this study, we(More)
Cyclins are discovered as proteins that accumulate progressively through interphase and disappear abruptly at mitosis during each cell cycle. In mammalian cells, cyclin A accumulates from late G1 phase and is destroyed before metaphase, and cyclin B is destroyed slightly later at anaphase. The abundance of the mitotic cyclins is mainly regulated at the(More)
Cell cycle checkpoints that monitor DNA damage and spindle assembly are essential for the maintenance of genetic integrity, and drugs that target these checkpoints are important chemotherapeutic agents. We have examined how cells respond to DNA damage while the spindle-assembly checkpoint is activated. Single cell electrophoresis and phosphorylation of(More)
The tumor suppressor p53 is negatively regulated by the ubiquitin ligase MDM2. The MDM2 recognition site is at the NH2-terminal region of p53, but the positions of the actual ubiquitination acceptor sites are less well defined. Lysine residues at the COOH-terminal region of p53 are implicated as sites for ubiquitination and other post-translational(More)
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