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Dinoflagellate genomes present unique challenges including large size, modified DNA bases, lack of nucleosomes, and condensed chromosomes. EST sequencing has shown that many genes are found as many slightly different variants implying that many copies are present in the genome. As a preliminary survey of the genome our goal was to obtain genomic sequences(More)
The tremendous diversity of land plants all descended from a single charophyte green alga that colonized the land somewhere between 430 and 470 million years ago. Six orders of charophyte green algae, in addition to embryophytes, comprise the Streptophyta s.l. Previous studies have focused on reconstructing the phylogeny of organisms tied to this key(More)
Serial transfer of plastids from one eukaryotic host to another is the key process involved in evolution of secondhand plastids. Such transfers drastically change the environment of the plastids and hence the selection regimes, presumably leading to changes over time in the characteristics of plastid gene evolution and to misleading phylogenetic inferences.(More)
The greatest diversity of eukaryotic species is within the microbial eukaryotes, the protists, with plants and fungi/metazoa representing just two of the estimated seventy five lineages of eukaryotes. Protists are a diverse group characterized by unusual genome features and a wide range of genome sizes from 8.2 Mb in the apicomplexan parasite Babesia bovis(More)
BACKGROUND Dinoflagellates represent a major lineage of unicellular eukaryotes with unparalleled diversity and complexity in morphological features. The monophyly of dinoflagellates has been convincingly demonstrated, but the interrelationships among dinoflagellate lineages still remain largely unresolved. Warnowiid dinoflagellates are among the most(More)
The complete nucleotide sequence of the mitochondrial genome of Emiliania huxleyi (Haptophyta) was determined. E. huxleyi is the most abundant coccolithophorid, key in many marine ecosystems, and plays a vital role in the global carbon cycle. The mitochondrial genome contains genes encoding three subunits of cytochrome c oxidase, apocytochrome b, seven(More)
Dinoflagellates have unique nuclei and intriguing genome characteristics with very high DNA content making complete genome sequencing difficult. In dinoflagellates, many genes are found in multicopy gene families, but the processes involved in the establishment and maintenance of these gene families are poorly understood. Understanding the dynamics of gene(More)
The genetic element s2m seems to represent one of very few examples of mobile genetic elements in viruses. The function remains obscure and a scattered taxonomical distribution has been reported by numerous groups. We have searched GenBank in order to identify all viral accessions that have s2m(−like) sequence motifs. Rigorous phylogenetic analyses and(More)
Athecate, pseudocolony-forming dinoflagellates have been classified within two genera of polykrikoids, Polykrikos and Pheopolykrikos, and different views about the boundaries and composition of these genera have been expressed in the literature. The photosynthetic polykrikoid Pheopolykrikos hartmannii, for instance, was originally described within(More)
Dinoflagellates are eukaryotes with unusual cell biology and appear to rely on translational rather than transcriptional control of gene expression. The eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) plays an important role in regulating gene expression because eIF4E binding to the mRNA cap is a control point for translation. eIF4E is part of an(More)