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Dinoflagellate genomes present unique challenges including large size, modified DNA bases, lack of nucleosomes, and condensed chromosomes. EST sequencing has shown that many genes are found as many slightly different variants implying that many copies are present in the genome. As a preliminary survey of the genome our goal was to obtain genomic sequences(More)
The tremendous diversity of land plants all descended from a single charophyte green alga that colonized the land somewhere between 430 and 470 million years ago. Six orders of charophyte green algae, in addition to embryophytes, comprise the Streptophyta s.l. Previous studies have focused on reconstructing the phylogeny of organisms tied to this key(More)
The complete nucleotide sequence of the plastid genome of the haptophyte Emiliania huxleyi has been determined. E. huxleyi is the most abundant coccolithophorid and has a key role in the carbon cycle. It is also implicated in the production of dimethylsulphide (DMS), which is involved in cloud nucleation and may affect the global climate. Here, we report(More)
Serial transfer of plastids from one eukaryotic host to another is the key process involved in evolution of secondhand plastids. Such transfers drastically change the environment of the plastids and hence the selection regimes, presumably leading to changes over time in the characteristics of plastid gene evolution and to misleading phylogenetic inferences.(More)
The chlorophyll c-containing algae comprise four major lineages: dinoflagellates, haptophytes, heterokonts, and cryptophytes. These four lineages have sometimes been grouped together based on their pigmentation, but cytological and rRNA data had suggested that they were not a monophyletic lineage. Some molecular data support monophyly of the plastids, while(More)
Athecate, pseudocolony-forming dinoflagellates have been classified within two genera of polykrikoids, Polykrikos and Pheopolykrikos, and different views about the boundaries and composition of these genera have been expressed in the literature. The photosynthetic polykrikoid Pheopolykrikos hartmannii, for instance, was originally described within(More)
The dinoflagellate Tintinnophagus acutus n. g., n. sp., an ectoparasite of the ciliate Tintinnopsis cylindrica Daday, superficially resembles Duboscquodinium collini Grassé, a parasite of Eutintinnus fraknoii Daday. Dinospores of T. acutus are small transparent cells having a sharply pointed episome, conspicuous eyespot, posteriorly positioned nucleus with(More)
Photosynthetic eukaryotes contain primary, secondary or tertiary plastids, depending on the source of the organelle (a cyanobacterium or a photosynthetic eukaryote). Plastid phylogeny is relatively well investigated, but molecular phylogenies have conflicted as a function of gene choice, taxon-representations, and analytical method. To better understand the(More)
The greatest diversity of eukaryotic species is within the microbial eukaryotes, the protists, with plants and fungi/metazoa representing just two of the estimated seventy five lineages of eukaryotes. Protists are a diverse group characterized by unusual genome features and a wide range of genome sizes from 8.2 Mb in the apicomplexan parasite Babesia bovis(More)
Metagenomic methods provide a powerful means to investigate complex ecological phenomena. Developed originally for study of Bacteria and Archaea, the application of these methods to eukaryotic microorganisms is yet to be fully realized. Most prior environmental molecular studies of eukaryotes have relied heavily on PCR amplification with eukaryote-specific(More)