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BACKGROUND Undertaking behavior is a significant adaptation to social life in enclosed nests. Workers are known to remove dead colony members from the nest. Such behavior prevents the spread of pathogens that may be detrimental to a colony. To date, little is known about the ethological aspects of how termites deal with carcasses. METHODOLOGY AND(More)
Termites often eliminate pathogens directly through mutual grooming, and are thereby prevent infections from entomopathogenic fungi. Our previous study confirmed that the antennae of Coptotermesformosanus sensitively responded to the musty odor of entomopathogenic fungi. However, it is unclear if this odor has any effect on termite behavior. The purpose of(More)
The results of biocontrol with entomopathogens in termites have been discouraging because of the strong social hygiene behavior for removing pathogens from termite colonies. However, the mechanism of pathogen detection is still unclear. For the successful application of biopesticides to termites in nature, it would be beneficial to identify substances that(More)
The studies of pathogen-prevention behaviors of termites have focused on hygiene behavior directed only against highly virulent pathogens. Therefore, we compared behavioral changes in the subterranean termite Coptotermes formosanus following contact with entomopathogenic fungi with different levels of virulence. The fungal virulence was inferred from the(More)
In the present study, 5 isolates of brown-rot fungi were used for fungal bioprocessing (FB) of chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood wastes: Antrodia vaillantii SEL8501, Fomitopsis palustris TYP0507 and TYP6137, and Crustoderma sp. KUC8065 and KUC8611. The isolates showed notable capacity for the degradation of treated wood and removal of CCA(More)
Artificial diet was developed for rearing of lower termites (workers) Coptotermes formosanus. C. formosanus was fed with either wood powder of Japanese red pine, cellulose, cellobiose, or glucose for 30 days. The effect of carbon sources in the diet on the structure and function of the symbiotic intestinal microbial community and on the physiological(More)
The nesting biology of the drywood termite, Incisitermes minor, is poorly understood. To date, no published data are available regarding the in situ nest-gallery development of I. minor. Three naturally infested Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis Bong. Carriere) timbers were analyzed by X-ray computer tomography to observe the structure of the first royal(More)
Impacts of the increasing CO 2 in seawater (i.e. ocean acidification) on phytoplank-ton physiology may have various and potentially adverse effects on phytoplankton dynamics and the carbon cycle. We conducted a CO 2 manipulation experiment in the Sea of Okhotsk in summer 2006 to investigate the response of the phytoplankton as-5 semblage and dynamics of(More)
A synthesis of 1,1-disubstituted 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolines (6) was achieved in a highly efficient manner via Pictet-Spengler reaction of arylethylamines (1) and acyclic and cyclic ketones (2) using titanium (IV) isopropoxide and acetic-formic anhydride. The cyclization of the in situ formed acyliminium ion (4) to N-formyl(More)
Antifungal and antitermitic activities of wood vinegar produced from Vitex pubescens were evaluated. Three kinds of wood vinegar were produced at three different pyrolysis temperatures, i.e. at 350, 400 and 450 °C. A PDA dilution method was employed to assay antifungal activity of the vinegars with a white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor and a brown-rot(More)