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Semaphorin 3A (Sema3A) is a diffusible axonal chemorepellent that has an important role in axon guidance. Previous studies have demonstrated that Sema3a(-/-) mice have multiple developmental defects due to abnormal neuronal innervations. Here we show in mice that Sema3A is abundantly expressed in bone, and cell-based assays showed that Sema3A affected(More)
A cross-sectional study that targeted a total of 43,630 pupils in Niigata City, Japan was performed. The objective of the study was to evaluate the association between sports activities and low back pain (LBP) in childhood and adolescence in Japan. Regarding risk factors of LBP, a large number of studies have been conducted that have examined gender(More)
There have been a few studies regarding detail of back pain in adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis (IS) as prevalence, location, and severity. The condition of back pain in adolescents with IS was clarified based on a cross-sectional study using a questionnaire survey, targeting a total of 43,630 pupils, including all elementary school pupils from the(More)
Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is a potent vasoconstrictor peptide produced by vascular endothelial cells. In order to investigate the effects of ET-1 on retinal vessels, ET-1 (1 ∼ 1000 pmol) was injected into the posterior vitreous body in rabbits. A high dose of ET-1 induced transient complete obstruction of the retinal vessels. In this experimental model of(More)
Several lines of clinical evidence (1–3) suggest that the adult skeleton in humans continuously responds to change in mechanical environment to maintain resultant " elastic " deformation (strain) of bone; increased or decreased bone strain would normally induce bone gain or loss, respectively. Indeed, skeletal adaptation to mechanical strain, known as the(More)
Impairment of retinal vascular homeostasis is associated with the development and progression of diabetic retinopathy involving gap junction intercellular communication (GJIC) activity. The principal gap junction protein of intercellular communication, connexin, was investigated to determine the effects of high glucose concentrations on the expression of(More)
Fridovich identified CuZnSOD in 1969 and manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) in 1973, and proposed "the Superoxide Theory," which postulates that superoxide (O2 (•-)) is the origin of most reactive oxygen species (ROS) and that it undergoes a chain reaction in a cell, playing a central role in the ROS producing system. Increased oxidative stress on an(More)
The cytolethal distending toxin (CDT) from Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans has been shown to induce cell cycle arrest in the G(2)/M phase in HeLa cells. In the present study, the mechanism of CDT-induced cell cycle arrest was investigated by using HS-72 cells, a murine B-cell hybridoma cell line. Using flow cytometric analysis, we found that the(More)
PURPOSE To investigate the role of the gap junction protein, connexin-43 (Cx43) in the maintenance of retinal vascular homeostasis in diabetic retinopathy. METHODS In human retinal pericytes (HRPs) and bovine retinal pericytes (BRPs) grown for 7 days in normal (5 mM) or high (30 mM)-glucose medium, the Cx43 protein level was determined by Western blot(More)
Recent studies have revealed that both transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) and activin A play pivotal roles in osteoclastogenesis. In this report, we show that the effect of TGF-beta family members, TGF-beta1 and activin A, but not BMP-2, enhance multinucleated osteoclast-like cell (OCL) formation induced by receptor activator of NF-kappaB ligand(More)