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Methylcobalamin (MeCbl), a vitamin B12 analog, promotes neurite outgrowth by activating Akt in neurons. However, Akt is involved in many cellular functions, and the downstream signal of Akt that promotes neurite outgrowth in neurons in the presence of MeCbl remains obscure. Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a serine/threonine protein kinase that(More)
Expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1 beta (IL-1beta) is increased following the nervous system injury. Generally IL-1beta induces inflammation, leading to neural degeneration, while several neuropoietic effects have also been reported. Although neurite outgrowth is an important step in nerve regeneration, whether IL-1beta takes(More)
Nerve injury brings about axonal disconnection, and thus axonal extension is one of the important steps for nerve regeneration. Expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1 beta (IL-1beta) is increased at the early stage of nervous system injury, and previously IL-1beta has been reported to promote neurite outgrowth by inhibiting RhoA activity(More)
Methylcobalamin is a vitamin B12 analog and is necessary for the maintenance of the nervous system. Although some previous studies have referred to the effects of methylcobalamin on neurons, the precise mechanism of this effect remains obscure. Here we show that methylcobalamin at concentrations above 100 nM promotes neurite outgrowth and neuronal survival(More)
Direct nerve-crossing of intercostal nerves from the lateral thorax to the musculocutaneous nerve was performed in 6 patients after spinal nerve root avulsion with brachial plexus palsy. Elbow flexion power was regained well enough to move against gravity and some resistance in all cases. The muscles were examined histochemically 4 (1-9) years after the(More)
The purpose of this article is to evaluate in vivo 3-dimensional kinematics of the elbow joint during elbow flexion. We studied the ulnohumeral and radiohumeral joint noninvasively in 3 elbows in healthy volunteers using a markerless bone registration algorithm. Magnetic resonance images were acquired in 6 positions of elbow flexion. The inferred contact(More)
PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to obtain qualitative and quantitative information regarding in vivo 3-dimensional (3D) kinematics of the midcarpal joint during wrist radioulnar deviation (RUD). METHODS We studied the in vivo kinematics of the midcarpal joint during wrist RUD in the right wrists of 10 volunteers by using a technology without(More)
Teratomas in the spinal cord are rare. We report a case in a 54-year-old man. CT scans revealed tumours of different densities within the spinal canal; this heterogeneity may help to differentiate teratoma from other spinal cord tumours. After resection of the tumours under microscopy, the result was excellent. Histological examination showed a variety of(More)
This study represents a new attempt to non-invasively analyze three-dimensional motions of the wrist in vivo. A volume-based registration method using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was developed to avoid radiation exposure. The primary aim was to evaluate the accuracy of volume-based registration and compare it with surface-based registration. The(More)
BACKGROUND The human carpus is a complex joint system. Many problems that arise in the wrist are the result of an alteration of intercarpal motion. Although the midcarpal joint is a major component of the wrist joint, the global kinematics of the midcarpal joint have not been described. The purpose of this study was to provide a simplified description of(More)