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The formation of disulfide is essential for the folding, activity, and stability of many proteins secreted by Gram-negative bacteria. The disulfide oxidoreductase, DsbA, introduces disulfide bonds into proteins exported from the cytoplasm to periplasm. In pathogenic bacteria, DsbA is required to process virulence determinants for their folding and assembly.(More)
A type III secretion system (T3SS) is utilized by a large number of gram-negative bacteria to deliver effectors directly into the cytosol of eukaryotic host cells. One essential component of a T3SS is an ATPase that catalyzes the unfolding of proteins, which is followed by the translocation of effectors through an injectisome. Here we demonstrate a(More)
The formation of disulfide bond is essential for the folding, activity, and stability of many secreted proteins of Gram-negative bacteria. The disulfide oxidoreductase, DsbA, introduces disulfide bonds into exported proteins from the cytoplasm. In pathogenic bacteria, DsbA is required to process virulence determinants for their folding and assembly. In this(More)
Serum resistance is a crucial virulence factor for the development of systemic infections, including bacteraemia, by many pathogenic bacteria. Salmonella enterica serovar Choleraesuis is an important enteric pathogen that causes serious systemic infections in swine and humans. Here, it was found that, when introduced into Escherichia coli, a recombinant(More)
The type III secretion system (T3SS) encoded by Chromobacterium pathogenicity islands 1 and 1a (Cpi-1/-1a) is critical for Chromobacterium violaceum pathogenesis. T3SS-dependent virulence is commonly characterized by type III effector virulence function, but the full repertoire of the effector proteins of Cpi-1/-1a T3SS is unknown. In this study, we showed(More)
RegIIIβ is a member of the C-type lectin family called RegIII. It is known to bind peptidoglycan, and its bactericidal activity shapes the interactions with commensal and pathogenic gut bacteria. However, little is known about its carbohydrate recognition specificity and the bactericidal mechanism, particularly against Gram-negative bacteria. Here, we show(More)
The nucleotide sequence of a small plasmid, designated pRF-1, isolated from Salmonella enterica serovar Choleraesuis, was determined. We identified seven open reading frames (ORFs) encoded by 6066 nucleotides with a total G + C content of 53.6%. Analysis of the complete nucleotide sequence revealed a replicon of pRF-1 to have high similarity to the p15A(More)
The type III secretion system encoded by Salmonella pathogenicity island 2 (SPI-2) is essential for the intracellular survival and replication of Salmonella enterica. The expression of SPI-2 genes is dependent on a two-component regulatory system, SsrA (SpiR)/SsrB, encoded in the SPI-2 region. This paper shows that SlyA regulates transcription of the sensor(More)
A number of bacteria that are pathogenic for animals and plants possess a type III secretion system (TTSS) to translocate virulence-associated proteins into host cells. In several bacteria, it has been reported that the TTSS is correlated with an ability to cause contact-dependent hemolysis in vitro. Here, we showed that the Salmonella enterica serovar(More)
Chromobacterium violaceum is a Gram-negative bacterium that causes fatal septicaemia in humans and animals. C. violaceum ATCC 12472 possesses genes associated with two distinct type III secretion systems (T3SSs). One of these systems is encoded by Chromobacterium pathogenicity islands 1 and 1a (Cpi-1/-1a), another is encoded by Chromobacterium pathogenicity(More)