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Homozygous deletion or mutation of the survival of motor neuron 1 gene (SMN1) causes spinal muscular atrophy. SMN1 has been duplicated in humans to create SMN2, which produces a low level of functional SMN protein. However, most SMN2 transcripts lack exon 7, resulting in a non-functional protein. A single nucleotide difference near the 5' end of exon 7(More)
The neurodegenerative disease spinal muscular atrophy is caused by mutation of the survival motor neuron 1 (SMN1) gene. SMN2 is a nearly identical copy of SMN1 that is unable to prevent disease, because most SMN2 transcripts lack exon 7 and thus produce a nonfunctional protein. A key cause of inefficient SMN2 exon 7 splicing is a single nucleotide(More)
—This paper proposes two new types of maximum a posteriori probability (MAP) receivers for multiple-input–mul-tiple-output and orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing mobile communications with a channel coding such as the low-density parity-check code. One proposed receiver employs the expectation-maximization algorithm so as to improve performance of(More)
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a relatively common neurodegenerative disease caused by homozygous loss of the survival motor neuron 1 (SMN1) gene. Humans possess a linked, nearly identical gene, SMN2, which produces a functional SMN protein but at levels insufficient to compensate for loss of SMN1 (refs. 1,2). A C/T transition at position +6 in exon 7 is(More)
Pre-mRNA splicing is a widely used regulatory mechanism for controlling gene expression, and a family of conserved proteins, SR proteins, participate in both constitutive and alternative splicing. Here we describe a novel function for the SR protein ASF/SF2. We used an embryonic chicken cDNA library to screen for differential mRNA expression in the chicken(More)
We focus the security and privacy threats in radio interface between evolved Node B (eNB, " base station ") and User Equipment (UE). We identify new threats including several user tracking attacks by various information in MAC and RRC signalling messages, and an active attack with false buffer status reports. Finally, we propose a solution including(More)
SUMMARY This paper proposes an iterative maximum a posteriori probability (MAP) receiver for multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) and orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) mobile communications. For exploiting the space, time, and frequency diversity, the low-density parity-check code (LDPC) is used as a channel coding with a built-in(More)
— This paper proposes novel channel estimation methods for an iterative maximum a posteriori (MAP) receiver. The targeted systems are low-density parity-check (LDPC)-coded multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) and orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) mobile communications. By reconsidering the joint processing of the iterative MAP receiver from(More)