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Inhibitors of VEGF signaling can block angiogenesis and reduce tumor vascularity, but little is known about the reversibility of these changes after treatment ends. In the present study, regrowth of blood vessels in spontaneous RIP-Tag2 tumors and implanted Lewis lung carcinomas in mice was assessed after inhibition of VEGF receptor signaling by AG-013736(More)
Retinal ischemia-reperfusion causes capillary degeneration but the mechanisms of damage are not well understood. The NMDA receptor plays an important role in neuronal damage after ischemia-reperfusion. Therefore, we determined whether retinal blood vessels are damaged structurally and functionally in a rat model of retinal degeneration induced by NMDA. At 7(More)
Prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) plays an important role in promoting inflammation and neurological disorders. The actions of PGE(2) are mediated by four different G-protein-coupled receptors (EP(1), EP(2), EP(3), and EP(4)). The purpose of this study was to determine whether stimulation of prostanoid EP(2) receptors has the potential to prevent the excitotoxic(More)
Increasing evidence suggests that the complex interactions among multiple cell types including neuronal, glial, and vascular cells, are critical for maintaining adequate cerebral blood flow that is necessary for normal brain function and survival. The disturbance of these interactions contributes to the pathogenesis of central nervous system disorders such(More)
We have previously reported that β3-adrenoceptor agonists dilate retinal blood vessels, but their effects on retinal neurons have been unclear. In this study, we examined the action of the β3-adrenoceptor agonist CL316243 against retinal damage induced by intravitreal injection of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) in rats. CL316243 was injected into the vitreous(More)
Antibodies and other macromolecular therapeutics can gain access to tumor cells via leaky tumor vessels. Inhibition of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling can reduce the vascularity of tumors and leakiness of surviving vessels, but little is known about how these changes affect the distribution of antibodies within tumors. We addressed this(More)
Brief ischemia was reported to protect various cells against injury induced by subsequent ischemia-reperfusion, and this phenomenon is known as ischemic preconditioning. The aims of the present study were to clarify whether early ischemic preconditioning could be observed in the rat retina by histological examination. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected(More)
Recent studies have shown that the retinal blood vessels are damaged in experimental models of retinal degeneration, but the mechanisms underlying their damage are not fully understood. In this study, we examined the possible role of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β in retinal neuron loss and capillary degeneration induced in rats by an intravitreal(More)
Capsaicin, a transient receptor potential vanilloid type1 (TRPV1) agonist, has been reported to protect against ischemia-reperfusion injury in various organs, including the brain, heart, and kidney, whereas activation of TRPV1 was also reported to contribute to neurodegeneration, including pressure-induced retinal ganglion cell death in vitro. We(More)
Although hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is generally thought to be a toxic gas, it has been reported to protect various tissues against ischemia-reperfusion injury. In the present study, we histologically investigated whether H2S, using sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) as its donor, had a protective effect on N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA)-induced retinal injury in the rat(More)