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Visual signal transduction is initiated by the photoisomerization of 11-cis retinal upon rhodopsin ligation. Unlike vertebrate rhodopsin, which interacts with Gt-type G-protein to stimulate the cyclic GMP signaling pathway, invertebrate rhodopsin interacts with Gq-type G-protein to stimulate a signaling pathway that is based on inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate.(More)
The crystal structures of citrate synthase from the thermophilic eubacteria Thermus thermophilus HB8 (TtCS) were determined for an open form at 1.5 Å resolution and for closed form at 2.3 Å resolution, respectively. In the absence of ligands TtCS in the open form was crystalized into a tetragonal form with a single subunit in the asymmetric unit. TtCS was(More)
Halorhodopsin from Natronomonas pharaonis (pHR), a retinylidene protein that functions as a light-driven chloride ion pump, is converted into a proton pump in the presence of azide ion. To clarify this conversion, we investigated light-induced structural changes in pHR using a C2 crystal that was prepared in the presence of Cl(-) and subsequently soaked in(More)
Thermoacidophilic archaeon Sulfolobus tokodaii strain 7 has two citrate synthase genes (ST1805-CS and ST0587-CS) in the genome with 45% sequence identity. Because they exhibit similar optimal temperatures of catalytic activity and thermal inactivation profiles, we performed structural comparisons between these isozymes to elucidate adaptation mechanisms to(More)
Upon absorption of light, the retinal chromophore in rhodopsin isomerizes from the 11-cis to the trans configuration, initiating a photoreaction cycle. The primary photoreaction state, bathorhodopsin (BATHO), relaxes thermally through lumirhodopsin (LUMI) into a photoactive state, metarhodopsin (META), which stimulates the conjugated G-protein. Previous(More)
Cruxrhodopsin-3 (cR3), a retinylidene protein found in the claret membrane of Haloarcula vallismortis, functions as a light-driven proton pump. In this study, the membrane fusion method was applied to crystallize cR3 into a crystal belonging to space group P321. Diffraction data at 2.1 Å resolution show that cR3 forms a trimeric assembly with(More)
Archaerhodopsin-2 (aR2), the sole protein found in the claret membrane of Halorubrum sp. Aus-2, functions as a light-driven proton pump. In this study, structural analysis of aR2 was performed using a novel three-dimensional crystal prepared by the successive fusion of claret membranes. The crystal is made up of stacked membranes, in each of which aR2(More)
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