Learn More
Protein-protein interactions play crucial roles in the execution of various biological functions. Accordingly, their comprehensive description would contribute considerably to the functional interpretation of fully sequenced genomes, which are flooded with novel genes of unpredictable functions. We previously developed a system to examine two-hybrid(More)
The induction of phase II detoxifying enzymes is an important defense mechanism against intake of xenobiotics. While this group of enzymes is believed to be under the transcriptional control of antioxidant response elements (AREs), this contention is experimentally unconfirmed. Since the ARE resembles the binding sequence of erythroid transcription factor(More)
Protein-protein interactions play pivotal roles in various aspects of the structural and functional organization of the cell, and their complete description is indispensable to thorough understanding of the cell. As an approach toward this goal, here we report a comprehensive system to examine two-hybrid interactions in all of the possible combinations(More)
Bone resorption is regulated by the immune system, where T-cell expression of RANKL (receptor activator of nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB ligand), a member of the tumour-necrosis factor family that is essential for osteoclastogenesis, may contribute to pathological conditions, such as autoimmune arthritis. However, whether activated T cells maintain bone(More)
BACKGROUND IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a novel clinical disease entity characterized by elevated serum IgG4 concentration and tumefaction or tissue infiltration by IgG4+ plasma cells. Although IgG4-RD is not rare and is clinically important, its clinical diagnostic criteria have not been established. Comprehensive diagnostic criteria for IgG4-RD,(More)
Smad7 is an inhibitory Smad that acts as a negative regulator of signaling by the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) superfamily proteins. Smad7 is induced by TGF-beta, stably interacts with activated TGF-beta type I receptor (TbetaR-I), and interferes with the phosphorylation of receptor-regulated Smads. Here we show that Smurf1, an E3 ubiquitin(More)
Preparation of specific lineages at high purities from embryonic stem (ES) cells requires both selective culture conditions and markers to guide and monitor the differentiation. In this study, we distinguished definitive and visceral endoderm by using a mouse ES cell line that bears the gfp and human IL2Rα (also known as CD25) marker genes in the goosecoid(More)
Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells have been generated from mouse and human fibroblasts by the retroviral transduction of four transcription factors. However, the cell origins and molecular mechanisms of iPS cell induction remain elusive. This report describes the generation of iPS cells from adult mouse hepatocytes and gastric epithelial cells. These iPS(More)
Bipotent mesendoderm that can give rise to both endoderm and mesoderm is an established entity from C. elegans to zebrafish. Although previous studies in mouse embryo indicated the presence of bi-potent mesendoderm cells in the organizer region, characterization of mesendoderm and its differentiation processes are still unclear. As bi-potent mesendoderm is(More)
The nucleus accumbens (Acb) of the rat has been divided immunohistochemically into shell and core, and further, it was subdivided into several portions in relation to functional significance. In this report, the efferent projection of each subdivision of the Acb was examined using biotinylated dextran amine as an anterograde tracer. In rostral Acb, the(More)