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1. The spatiotemporal pattern of inhibition in the cat motor cortex was studied in in vitro slice preparations in the presence of 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX) and 2-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid (APV). 2. After intracortical microstimulation (0.5-6 microA), fast and slow inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (IPSPs) were produced in layers II-VI(More)
Reflex effects of cutaneous mechanical stimulation on adrenal sympathetic efferent nerve activity and secretion rates of the adrenal medullary hormones (epinephrine and norepinephrine) were studied in anesthetized rats. Noxious pinching stimulation of the lower chest or hindpaw skin for 3 min produced proportional reflex increases in both the nerve activity(More)
An important feature of ischemic brain damage is the selective vulnerability of specific neuronal populations. We studied the distribution and time course of neuronal damage following transient cerebral ischemia in the gerbil, using light microscopy and 45Ca autoradiography. Following 5 min of ischemia, selective neuronal damage determined by abnormal 45Ca(More)
We investigated the immunohistochemical alterations of parvalbumin (PV)-expressing interneurons in the hippocampus after transient cerebral ischemia in gerbils in comparison with neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS)-expressing interneurons. We also examined the effect of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase inhibitor pitavastatin against the(More)
The cellular damage over time and the alterations of neuronal subtypes was characterized in the striatum after 90-min middle cerebral artery occlusion and reperfusion in rats. We investigated the immunohistochemical alterations of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)-positive (cholinergic-positive), gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic parvalbumin (PV)-positive,(More)
Preconditioning of the brain with sublethal ischemia protects against neuronal damage following subsequent longer periods of ischemia (ischemic tolerance). In order to evaluate the potential involvement of microglial activation in ischemic tolerance, we immunohistochemically visualized microglial cells in the hippocampus in a rat model of ischemic(More)
Regional cerebral protein synthesis following brief ischemia was investigated in the Mongolian gerbil, utilizing L-[methyl-14C]methionine autoradiography. Transient ischemia was induced for 1, 2 or 3 min. At various recirculation periods up to 48 h, animals received a single dose of L-[methyl-14C]methionine and then were terminated 35 min later.(More)
We investigated the age-related changes in neuronal cell death and synaptophysin of the hippocampal CA1 sector in mice using immunohistochemistry. Microtubule-associated protein 2a, b (MAP2) and synaptophysin immunoreactivity was measured in 2-, 8-, 18-, 42- and 59-week-old mice. MAP2 immunoreactivity was unchanged in the hippocampal CA1 sector up to 42(More)
Parkinson's disease is one of the major neurodegenerative disorders. This disease is mainly characterized by tremor, bradykinesia, rigidity and postural instability that results primarily from a loss of dopaminergic neurons of nigrostriatal pathway. MPTP (1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine) is well known to damage the nigrostriatal dopaminergic(More)
We present results of a study of neutrino oscillation based on a 766 ton/year exposure of KamLAND to reactor antineutrinos. We observe 258 nu (e) candidate events with energies above 3.4 MeV compared to 365.2+/-23.7 events expected in the absence of neutrino oscillation. Accounting for 17.8+/-7.3 expected background events, the statistical significance for(More)