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1. The spatiotemporal pattern of inhibition in the cat motor cortex was studied in in vitro slice preparations in the presence of 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX) and 2-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid (APV). 2. After intracortical microstimulation (0.5-6 microA), fast and slow inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (IPSPs) were produced in layers II-VI(More)
The detection of electron antineutrinos produced by natural radioactivity in the Earth could yield important geophysical information. The Kamioka liquid scintillator antineutrino detector (KamLAND) has the sensitivity to detect electron antineutrinos produced by the decay of 238U and 232Th within the Earth. Earth composition models suggest that the(More)
Reflex effects of cutaneous mechanical stimulation on adrenal sympathetic efferent nerve activity and secretion rates of the adrenal medullary hormones (epinephrine and norepinephrine) were studied in anesthetized rats. Noxious pinching stimulation of the lower chest or hindpaw skin for 3 min produced proportional reflex increases in both the nerve activity(More)
An important feature of ischemic brain damage is the selective vulnerability of specific neuronal populations. We studied the distribution and time course of neuronal damage following transient cerebral ischemia in the gerbil, using light microscopy and 45Ca autoradiography. Following 5 min of ischemia, selective neuronal damage determined by abnormal 45Ca(More)
The biochemical and cellular changes that occur following treatment with MPTP (1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahyropyridine) are remarkably similar to that seen in idiopathic Parkinson's disease. In this study, we investigated the time course changes of NF-kappaB (Nuclear factor kappa B) p65 protein and apoptosis in the substantia nigra after MPTP treatment(More)
PURPOSE To determine whether decreased signal intensity of the motor cortex (T2 shortening) at magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is a useful finding for supporting the diagnosis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). MATERIALS AND METHODS High-field-strength (1.5-T) MR images of 15 patients (seven men and eight women, aged 28-80 years) and 49(More)
We investigated the immunohistochemical alterations of parvalbumin (PV)-expressing interneurons in the hippocampus after transient cerebral ischemia in gerbils in comparison with neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS)-expressing interneurons. We also examined the effect of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase inhibitor pitavastatin against the(More)
The cellular damage over time and the alterations of neuronal subtypes was characterized in the striatum after 90-min middle cerebral artery occlusion and reperfusion in rats. We investigated the immunohistochemical alterations of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)-positive (cholinergic-positive), gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic parvalbumin (PV)-positive,(More)
Preconditioning of the brain with sublethal ischemia protects against neuronal damage following subsequent longer periods of ischemia (ischemic tolerance). In order to evaluate the potential involvement of microglial activation in ischemic tolerance, we immunohistochemically visualized microglial cells in the hippocampus in a rat model of ischemic(More)
Regional cerebral protein synthesis following brief ischemia was investigated in the Mongolian gerbil, utilizing L-[methyl-14C]methionine autoradiography. Transient ischemia was induced for 1, 2 or 3 min. At various recirculation periods up to 48 h, animals received a single dose of L-[methyl-14C]methionine and then were terminated 35 min later.(More)