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Flowering in Arabidopsis is promoted via several interacting pathways. A photoperiod-dependent pathway relays signals from photoreceptors to a transcription factor gene, CONSTANS (CO), which activates downstream meristem identity genes such as LEAFY (LFY). FT, together with LFY, promotes flowering and is positively regulated by CO. Loss of FT causes delay(More)
1. The spatiotemporal pattern of inhibition in the cat motor cortex was studied in in vitro slice preparations in the presence of 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX) and 2-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid (APV). 2. After intracortical microstimulation (0.5-6 microA), fast and slow inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (IPSPs) were produced in layers II-VI(More)
Reflex effects of cutaneous mechanical stimulation on adrenal sympathetic efferent nerve activity and secretion rates of the adrenal medullary hormones (epinephrine and norepinephrine) were studied in anesthetized rats. Noxious pinching stimulation of the lower chest or hindpaw skin for 3 min produced proportional reflex increases in both the nerve activity(More)
We investigated the immunohistochemical alterations of parvalbumin (PV)-expressing interneurons in the hippocampus after transient cerebral ischemia in gerbils in comparison with neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS)-expressing interneurons. We also examined the effect of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase inhibitor pitavastatin against the(More)
The cellular damage over time and the alterations of neuronal subtypes was characterized in the striatum after 90-min middle cerebral artery occlusion and reperfusion in rats. We investigated the immunohistochemical alterations of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)-positive (cholinergic-positive), gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic parvalbumin (PV)-positive,(More)
The biochemical, behavioral and immunohistochemical manifestations were investigated in mice subjected to four experimental schedules with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) hydrochloride treatment. The mice were treated intraperitoneally with MPTP (20 mg/kg in saline) four times a day at 2-h intervals showed severe and persistent(More)
Preconditioning of the brain with sublethal ischemia protects against neuronal damage following subsequent longer periods of ischemia (ischemic tolerance). In order to evaluate the potential involvement of microglial activation in ischemic tolerance, we immunohistochemically visualized microglial cells in the hippocampus in a rat model of ischemic(More)
The distribution of GABAA receptor gamma 1 subunit was examined in the rat central nervous system using in situ hybridization histochemistry. The gamma 1 subunit was expressed in relatively limited areas compared to other subunits investigated previously. The brain regions strongly expressing this subunit were the septum, globus pallidus, bed nucleus of the(More)
Regional cerebral protein synthesis following brief ischemia was investigated in the Mongolian gerbil, utilizing L-[methyl-14C]methionine autoradiography. Transient ischemia was induced for 1, 2 or 3 min. At various recirculation periods up to 48 h, animals received a single dose of L-[methyl-14C]methionine and then were terminated 35 min later.(More)
Parkinson's disease is one of the major neurodegenerative disorders. This disease is mainly characterized by tremor, bradykinesia, rigidity and postural instability that results primarily from a loss of dopaminergic neurons of nigrostriatal pathway. MPTP (1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine) is well known to damage the nigrostriatal dopaminergic(More)