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We have modified an FLP/FRT-based genetic mosaic system to label either neurons derived from a common progenitor or isolated single neurons, in the Drosophila CNS. These uniquely labeled neurons can also be made homozygous for a mutation of interest within an otherwise phenotypically wild-type brain. Using this new mosaic system, not only can normal brain(More)
The mushroom bodies (MBs) are prominent structures in the Drosophila brain that are essential for olfactory learning and memory. Characterization of the development and projection patterns of individual MB neurons will be important for elucidating their functions. Using mosaic analysis with a repressible cell marker (Lee, T. and Luo, L. (1999) Neuron 22,(More)
Voltage-dependent calcium channels mediate calcium entry into neurons, which is crucial for many processes in the brain including synaptic transmission, dendritic spiking, gene expression and cell death. Many types of calcium channels exist in mammalian brains, but high-affinity blockers are available for only two types, L-type channels (targeted by(More)
Nitric oxide (NO) conveys a variety of messages between cells, including signals for vasorelaxation, neurotransmission, and cytotoxicity. In some endothelial cells and neurons, a constitutive NO synthase is activated transiently by agonists that elevate intracellular calcium concentrations and promote the binding of calmodulin. In contrast, in macrophages,(More)
We have isolated two novel related neuropeptides from the radial nerve cords of the starfishes Asterias rubens and Asterias forbesi. One is an octapeptide with the amino acid sequence Gly-Phe-Asn-Ser-Ala-Leu-Met-Phe-NH2 and the other is a dodecapeptide with the amino acid sequence Ser-Gly-Pro-Tyr-Ser-Phe-Asn-Ser-Gly-Leu-Thr-Phe-NH2. The peptides were(More)
The amino acid sequence of the first of a family of insect cardioregulatory peptides from the tobacco hawkmoth, Manduca sexta, has been determined using a combination of Edman degradation microsequencing and mass spectroscopy. This peptide contains 9 amino acid residues and an observed mass for the monoisotopic protonated molecule of 956.4 Da. There are two(More)
We purified three homologous antimicrobial peptides ('gallinacins') from chicken leukocytes, examined their antimicrobial activity in vitro, and established their primary sequences by a combination of gas phase microsequencing and on-line LC-ESI-MS analysis of endo- and exoprotease peptide digests. The peptides contained 36-39 amino acid residues, were(More)
The small GTPases Cdc42 and Rac regulate a variety of biological processes, including actin polymerization, cell proliferation, and JNK/mitogen-activated protein kinase activation, conceivably via distinct effectors. Whereas the effector for mitogen-activated protein kinase activation appears to be p65PAK, the identity of effector(s) for actin(More)
Neural stem cell (NSC) transplantation has been proposed as a future therapy for neurodegenerative disorders. However, NSC transplantation will be hampered by the limited number of brain donors and the toxicity of immunosuppressive regimens that might be needed with allogeneic transplantation. These limitations may be avoided if NSCs can be generated from(More)