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We used a variety of statistical measures to identify the point process that describes the maintained discharge of retinal ganglion cells (RGC's) and neurons in the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) of the cat. These measures are based on both interevent intervals and event counts and include the interevent-interval histogram, rescaled range analysis, the(More)
We report that neuronal spike trains can exhibit high, stimulus-dependent temporal precision even while the trial-to-trial response variability, measured in several traditional ways, remains substantially independent of the stimulus. We show that retinal ganglion cells and neurons in the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) of cats in vivo display both these(More)
We employ a number of statistical measures to characterize neural discharge activity in cat retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and in their target lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) neurons under various stimulus conditions, and we develop a new measure to examine correlations in fractal activity between spike-train pairs. In the absence of stimulation (i.e., in(More)
We demonstrate intense high-order harmonic generation from plasma that is created from different carbon targets. We obtain high-order harmonic energy in the multi-microjoule range for each harmonic order from the 11th to the 17th harmonic. By analyzing the target morphology and the plasma composition, we conclude that the intense harmonics from the bulk(More)
We describe a dual, second harmonic generation (SHG) and third harmonic generation (THG) microscope, with the aim to obtain large-scale images of the cornea that can simultaneously resolve the micron-thick thin layers. We use an Ytterbium femtosecond laser as the laser source, the longer wavelength of which reduces scattering and allows simultaneous SHG and(More)
The surface ablation threshold fluence of fused silica and two porcine cornea layers, the epithelium and the stroma, is characterized as a function of the laser pulse duration in the range of 100 fs-5 ps for a wavelength of 800 nm (Ti:sapphire laser system). The plateaulike region observed between 100 fs and 1 ps for the corneal layers indicates that for(More)
We measure the surface ablation threshold fluence of porcine corneal stroma for 100 fs laser pulses, with wavelengths between 800 nm and 1450 nm, generated by a Ti:sapphire-pumped optical parametric amplifier. The ablation threshold was found to vary only slightly within this wavelength range, between 1.5 and 2.2 J/cm(2). The data suggest a rapid increase(More)
We demonstrate an optical instrument that can measure the axial displacement of different eye tissues, including the cornea and the fundus. The instrument is based on spectral-domain low-coherence interferometry, which extracts displacement information from sequential axial scans of the eye with 100 Hz sampling frequency and with a precision of 400 nm.(More)
Today's ultrafast lasers operate at the physical limits of optical materials to reach extreme performances. Amplification of single-cycle laser pulses with their corresponding octave-spanning spectra still remains a formidable challenge since the universal dilemma of gain narrowing sets limits for both real level pumped amplifiers as well as parametric(More)
Low-frequency currents induced by ultrashort laser-driven ionization can emit extremely broadband, single-cycle terahertz pulses. We present a model that predicts a strong wavelength dependence of the THz emission in good agreement with our experimental study. This reveals that the combined effects of plasma currents rising proportionally to the square of(More)