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OBJECTIVES Depression has been associated with impaired neural processing of reward and punishment. However, to date, little is known regarding the relationship between depression and intertemporal choice (delay discounting) for gain and loss. This examination is potentially important for advances in neuroeconomics of intertemporal choice, because(More)
OBJECTIVE Increased appetite and weight gain are frequently reported in treatment with olanzapine. However, the mechanism behind this appetite gain remains unclear. Ghrelin is a newly discovered appetite-stimulating peptide that has a role in the regulation of feeding behavior. Ghrelin is synthesized principally in the stomach, and the concentration of(More)
Much evidence from animal and clinical studies has shown that the mediodorsal nucleus of the thalamus (MD) is related to various types of memory, such as visual recognition, object-reward association, spatial working, and reference memory; however, few studies have investigated its role in emotion-related learning and memory processes. This study compared(More)
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are first-line treatment for most anxiety disorders, but their mechanism of anxiolytic action has not been clarified. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are anxiolytic in conditioned fear stress (re-exposure to an environment paired previously with inescapable electric footshocks). To clarify the brain regions(More)
Clozapine is a prototype of atypical antipsychotics that has a profile not only to block D(2)/5-HT(2A) receptors but also to enhance N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-mediated glutamatergic neurotransmission. This study hypothesized different effects between a single and repeated administration of clozapine on NMDA receptor-mediated neurotransmission,(More)
We recorded single neuronal activities in the anterior cingulate cortex of monkeys while they were performing discriminative pain-avoidance and reward tasks: a prediction cue was presented for 0.5-1.5 s, followed by a red or green discrimination cue (1:1, random) for 1.0 s; painful stimuli were presented if the monkey failed to respond during the red cue; a(More)
RATIONALE The present study hypothesized that delayed increases in extracellular glutamate (Glu) levels in the nucleus accumbens (NAC), induced by a high dose of methamphetamine (METH), can result in some functional changes of excitatory amino acid receptors, developing behavioral cross-sensitization to a non-competitive N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor(More)
Among drugs that act on serotonergic neurotransmission, selective serotonin (5-HT) reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are now the gold standard for the treatment of anxiety disorders. The precise mechanisms of the anxiolytic actions of SSRIs are unclear. We reviewed the literature related to the effects of SSRIs and the neurochemical changes of 5-HT in conditioned(More)
The effects of 3-week treatment with a typical antipsychotic drug chlorpromazine and three atypical antipsychotic drugs (risperidone, olanzapine and perospirone) on the binding to dopamine D2 and serotonin 5-HT2A receptors were examined in the rat stratum and frontal cortex, respectively. Subchronic treatment with chlorpromazine (10 mg/kg) and perospirone(More)
We examined effects of nitric oxide (NO.) synthesis inhibition on methamphetamine (MA)-induced dopaminergic and serotonergic neurotoxicity. The toxic dose of MA (5 mg/kg, sc, x4) significantly decreased contents of dopamine (DA), dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and homovanillic acid (HVA) in the striatum (ST), and significantly decreased contents of(More)