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OBJECTIVES Depression has been associated with impaired neural processing of reward and punishment. However, to date, little is known regarding the relationship between depression and intertemporal choice (delay discounting) for gain and loss. This examination is potentially important for advances in neuroeconomics of intertemporal choice, because(More)
OBJECTIVE Increased appetite and weight gain are frequently reported in treatment with olanzapine. However, the mechanism behind this appetite gain remains unclear. Ghrelin is a newly discovered appetite-stimulating peptide that has a role in the regulation of feeding behavior. Ghrelin is synthesized principally in the stomach, and the concentration of(More)
This study aims to propose a comprehensive new model for schizophrenia, which shows PPI disruption at baseline state as an endophenotype, the development of cross-sensitization to an NMDA receptor antagonist, MK-801 as a clinical phenotype of the progression into treatment-resistance, and accompanied induction of apoptosis in the medial prefrontal cortex as(More)
Much evidence from animal and clinical studies has shown that the mediodorsal nucleus of the thalamus (MD) is related to various types of memory, such as visual recognition, object-reward association, spatial working, and reference memory; however, few studies have investigated its role in emotion-related learning and memory processes. This study compared(More)
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are first-line treatment for most anxiety disorders, but their mechanism of anxiolytic action has not been clarified. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are anxiolytic in conditioned fear stress (re-exposure to an environment paired previously with inescapable electric footshocks). To clarify the brain regions(More)
Clozapine is a prototype of atypical antipsychotics that has a profile not only to block D(2)/5-HT(2A) receptors but also to enhance N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-mediated glutamatergic neurotransmission. This study hypothesized different effects between a single and repeated administration of clozapine on NMDA receptor-mediated neurotransmission,(More)
Among drugs that act on serotonergic neurotransmission, selective serotonin (5-HT) reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are now the gold standard for the treatment of anxiety disorders. The precise mechanisms of the anxiolytic actions of SSRIs are unclear. We reviewed the literature related to the effects of SSRIs and the neurochemical changes of 5-HT in conditioned(More)
We examined effects of nitric oxide (NO.) synthesis inhibition on methamphetamine (MA)-induced dopaminergic and serotonergic neurotoxicity. The toxic dose of MA (5 mg/kg, sc, x4) significantly decreased contents of dopamine (DA), dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and homovanillic acid (HVA) in the striatum (ST), and significantly decreased contents of(More)
The present study examined effect of administration of a selective D1 dopamine receptor agonist, SKF38393 on extracellular concentrations of glutamate (Glu) and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in mPFC, by using in vivo microdialysis. Perfusion with SKF38393 via a dialysis probe reduced concentrations of both Glu and GABA dose-relatedly, and these effects(More)
RATIONALE Our group has recently shown that methamphetamine (METH) (2.5 mg/kg) induced delayed increases in glutamate (Glu) levels in the rat nucleus accumbens (NAC), and that its repeated administration leads to behavioral cross-sensitization to a selective uncompetitive N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, dizocilpine (MK-801). OBJECTIVES(More)