Tsukasa Kawahara

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Abnormal smooth-muscle contractility may be a major cause of disease states such as hypertension, and a smooth-muscle relaxant that modulates this process would be useful therapeutically. Smooth-muscle contraction is regulated by the cytosolic Ca2+ concentration and by the Ca2+ sensitivity of myofilaments: the former activates myosin light-chain kinase and(More)
The adenomatous polyposis coli gene (APC) is mutated in familial adenomatous polyposis and in sporadic colorectal tumors, and its product binds to the adherens junction protein beta-catenin. Overexpression of APC blocks cell cycle progression. The APC-beta-catenin complex was shown to bind to DLG, the human homolog of the Drosophila discs large tumor(More)
In recent years, it has become clear that reactive oxygen species (ROS, which include superoxide, hydrogen peroxide, and other metabolites) are produced in biological systems. Rather than being simply a by-product of aerobic metabolism, it is now recognized that specific enzymes--the Nox (NADPH oxidase) and Duox (Dual oxidase) enzymes--seem to have the sole(More)
The integral membrane protein p22phox is an indispensable component of the superoxide-generating phagocyte NADPH oxidase, whose catalytic core is the membrane-associated gp91phox (also known as Nox2). p22phox associates with gp91phox and, through its proline-rich C terminus, provides a binding site for the tandem Src homology 3 domains of the activating(More)
NADPH-oxidases (Nox) and the related Dual oxidases (Duox) play varied biological and pathological roles via regulated generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Members of the Nox/Duox family have been identified in a wide variety of organisms, including mammals, nematodes, fruit fly, green plants, fungi, and slime molds; however, little is known about(More)
NADPH oxidase 4 (Nox4) is constitutively active, while Nox2 requires the cytosolic regulatory subunits p47(phox) and p67(phox) and activated Rac with activation by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA). This study was undertaken to identify the domain on Nox4 that confers constitutive activity. Lysates from Nox4-expressing cells exhibited constitutive(More)
Nox5, an EF-hand-containing reactive oxygen species (ROS)-generating NADPH oxidase, contains two conserved polybasic regions: one N-terminal (PBR-N), located between the fourth EF-hand and the first transmembrane region, and one C-terminal (PBR-C), between the first and second NADPH-binding subregions. Here, we show that phosphatidylinositol(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Reactive oxygen species (ROS) may play a critical role in the regulation of vascular tone and development of vascular diseases, such as stroke. NAD(P)H oxidase is a major source of ROS in vascular cells, including endothelial cells. It has been considered that Nox2 and Nox4 are exclusively expressed among Nox homologues in the(More)
The NADPH oxidase 1 (Nox1) is a gp91(phox) homologue preferentially expressed in the colon. We have established primary cultures of guinea pig large intestinal epithelial cells giving 90% purity of surface mucous cells. These cells spontaneously released superoxide anion (O(2)(-)) of 160 nmol/mg protein/h and expressed the Nox1, p22(phox), p67(phox), and(More)
Primary cultures of guinea pig gastric mucosal cells express NADPH oxidase 1 (Nox1), a homolog of gp91(phox), and produce superoxide anion (O2-) at a rate of approximately 100 nmol.mg protein(-1).h(-1) in response to Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from virulent type I strains. The upregulated O2- production also enhances H. pylori(More)