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The morphology and distribution of the serotoninergic (5-HT) input to the Mauthner cell (M cell) of a teleost, Carassius auratus, were analyzed at the light microscopic level. Immunohistochemical methods revealed that 1) most fibers innervating the M cell originate from the ventral and lateroventral regions of the rhombencephalon; 2) two groups of fibers(More)
The phototransduction mechanism of the extra-ocular photoreceptor cells Ip-2 and Ip-1 in the mollusc Onchidium ganglion was examined. Previous work showed that the depolarizing receptor potential of another extra-ocular photoreceptor cell, A-P-1 is produced by a decrease of the light-sensitive K+ conductance activated by a second messenger, cGMP and is(More)
Although most examples of modulation of synaptic transmission have been obtained from excitatory rather than from inhibitory connections, serotonin (5HT) is now shown to cause a presynaptic facilitation of release of the inhibitory neurotransmitter glycine. Brief local injections of this amine, or application of a 5HT uptake blocker, produce a long-lasting(More)
Simple photoreceptors, namely photoresponsive neurons without microvilli and/or cilia have long been known in the central ganglion of crayfish, Aplysia, Onchidium and Helix. Recently, similar simple photoreceptors, ipRGCs were discovered in the mammalian retinas. A characteristic common to all of their photoreceptor potentials shows a slow kinetics and(More)
Simple photoreceptors, namely photoresponsive neurons, designated as A-P-1, Es-1, Ip-2 and Ip-1, exist in the sea slug Onchidium ganglion. Previous works has shown that, of these, Ip-2 and Ip-1 respond to light with a hyperpolarizing receptor potential, caused by the opening of light-dependent, cGMP-gated K+ channels, whereas A-P-1 and Es-1 are depolarized(More)
The internal messengers mediating the photocurrent of the molluscan extraocular photoreceptor, A-P-1, were examined. In the dark, pressure-injection of cGMP into the A-P-1, voltage-clamped at resting levels, produced a rapid outward current, associated with an increase in conductance. However, the cGMP-induced current and increase in conductance were(More)
The photoresponse of an extraocular photoreceptor, the photoresponsive neuron (A-P-1) in the abdominal ganglion of Onchidium verruculatum, was studied by using a voltage-clamp with two micropipettes and a monochromatic light. When the A-P-1 was voltage-clamped at resting membrane potential levels, light induced a slowly developing inward current which(More)
We report the first recordings of the light-sensitive channel which is active during dark and is closed by light in the Onchidium extra-ocular photoreceptor cells. This light-sensitive channel was K-selective and was not blocked by extracellular Ca2+ and Mg2+. Application of cyclic GMP to excised inside-out patches activated (opened) a channel that appeared(More)
This study was conducted to clarify the electrical and spectral properties of the combined photoresponses of two extra-ocular photoreceptor neurones, A-P-l and Es-1, in the abdominal ganglion of the marine mollusc Onchidium verruculatum. The depolarizing receptor potential or inward receptor current of Es-1 appeared to result from a decrease in K +(More)
Simple photoreceptors, namely intrinsically light-sensitive neurons without microvilli and/or cilia, have long been known to exist in the central ganglia of crayfish, Aplysia, Onchidium, and Helix. These simple photoreceptors are not only first-order photosensory cells, but also second-order neurons (interneurons), relaying several kinds of sensory synaptic(More)