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The innate immune system is absolutely required for host defence, but, uncontrolled, it leads to inflammatory disease. This control is mediated, in part, by cytokines that are secreted by macrophages. Immune regulation is extraordinarily complex, and can be best investigated with systems approaches (that is, using computational tools to predict regulatory(More)
The purpose of this review is to discuss ATF3, a member of the ATF/CREB family of transcription factors, and its roles in stress responses. In the introduction, we briefly describe the ATF/CREB family, which contains more than 10 proteins with the basic region-leucine zipper (bZip) DNA binding domain. We summarize their DNA binding and heterodimer formation(More)
The mammalian ATF/CREB family of transcription factors represents a large group of basic region-leucine zipper (bZip) proteins which was originally defined in the late 1980s by their ability to bind to the consensus ATF/CRE site 'TGACGTCA'. Over the past decade, cDNA clones encoding identical or homologous proteins have been isolated by different(More)
Gadd153, also known as chop, encodes a member of the CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) transcription factor family and is transcriptionally activated by cellular stress signals. We recently demonstrated that arsenite treatment of rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells results in the biphasic induction of Gadd153 mRNA expression, controlled in part through(More)
Free fatty acids (FFA) cause apoptosis of pancreatic beta-cells and might contribute to beta-cell loss in type 2 diabetes via the induction of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. We studied here the molecular mechanisms implicated in FFA-induced ER stress initiation and apoptosis in INS-1E cells, FACS-purified primary beta-cells and human islets exposed to(More)
ATF3 gene, which encodes a member of the activating transcription factor/cAMP responsive element binding protein (ATF/CREB) family of transcription factors, is induced by many physiological stresses. As a step toward understanding the induction mechanisms, we isolated the human ATF3 gene and analyzed its genome organization and 5'-flanking region. We found(More)
Acute expression of macrophage inflammatory protein-1 beta (also known as CCL4) promotes beneficial leukocyte recruitment to infected tissues, but chronic expression of this chemokine contributes to inflammatory disease. CCL4 expression is controlled largely at the transcriptional level and an ATF/CRE sequence located in the promoter (-104 to -97bp,(More)
We propose an interhelical salt bridge rule to explain the dimerization specificity between the two amphipathic alpha-helices in the leucine zipper structure. Using the bZIP class of DNA-binding proteins as a model system, we predicted and designed novel dimerization partners. We predicted that ATF4, a member of the ATF/CREB family of transcription factors,(More)
ATF3 is a member of the mammalian activating transcription factor/cAMP responsive element binding protein (ATF/CREB) family of transcription factors. In this report, we demonstrate that, contrary to the implication of its name, ATF3 represses rather than activates transcription from promoters with ATF sites. We also present evidence suggesting that one(More)
Hypoxia is a key factor in tumor development, contributing to angiogenesis and radiotherapy resistance. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) is a major transcription factor regulating the response of cancer cells to hypoxia. However, tumors also contain areas of more severe oxygen depletion, or anoxia. Mechanisms for survival under anoxia are HIF-1alpha(More)