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The innate immune system is absolutely required for host defence, but, uncontrolled, it leads to inflammatory disease. This control is mediated, in part, by cytokines that are secreted by macrophages. Immune regulation is extraordinarily complex, and can be best investigated with systems approaches (that is, using computational tools to predict regulatory(More)
The purpose of this review is to discuss ATF3, a member of the ATF/CREB family of transcription factors, and its roles in stress responses. In the introduction, we briefly describe the ATF/CREB family, which contains more than 10 proteins with the basic region-leucine zipper (bZip) DNA binding domain. We summarize their DNA binding and heterodimer formation(More)
The mammalian ATF/CREB family of transcription factors represents a large group of basic region-leucine zipper (bZip) proteins which was originally defined in the late 1980s by their ability to bind to the consensus ATF/CRE site 'TGACGTCA'. Over the past decade, cDNA clones encoding identical or homologous proteins have been isolated by different(More)
Gadd153, also known as chop, encodes a member of the CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) transcription factor family and is transcriptionally activated by cellular stress signals. We recently demonstrated that arsenite treatment of rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells results in the biphasic induction of Gadd153 mRNA expression, controlled in part through(More)
Free fatty acids (FFA) cause apoptosis of pancreatic beta-cells and might contribute to beta-cell loss in type 2 diabetes via the induction of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. We studied here the molecular mechanisms implicated in FFA-induced ER stress initiation and apoptosis in INS-1E cells, FACS-purified primary beta-cells and human islets exposed to(More)
ATF3 gene, which encodes a member of the activating transcription factor/cAMP responsive element binding protein (ATF/CREB) family of transcription factors, is induced by many physiological stresses. As a step toward understanding the induction mechanisms, we isolated the human ATF3 gene and analyzed its genome organization and 5'-flanking region. We found(More)
ATF3 (activating transcription factor 3) gene encodes a member of the ATF/CREB (cAMP-response-element-binding protein) family of transcription factors. Its expression is induced by a wide range of signals, including stress signals and signals that promote cell proliferation and motility. Thus the ATF3 gene can be characterized as an 'adaptive response' gene(More)
Acute expression of macrophage inflammatory protein-1 beta (also known as CCL4) promotes beneficial leukocyte recruitment to infected tissues, but chronic expression of this chemokine contributes to inflammatory disease. CCL4 expression is controlled largely at the transcriptional level and an ATF/CRE sequence located in the promoter (-104 to -97bp,(More)
The activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) gene is induced by a variety of signals, including many of those encountered by cancer cells. We present evidence that ATF3 is induced by TGFβ in the MCF10CA1a breast cancer cells and plays an integral role for TGFβ to upregulate its target genes snail, slug and twist, and to enhance cell motility. Furthermore,(More)
  • T Hai, T Curran
  • 1991
The Fos/Jun and ATF/CREB families of transcription factors function in coupling extracellular signals to alterations in expression of specific target genes. Like many eukaryotic transcription factors, these proteins bind to DNA as dimers. Dimerization is mediated by a structure known as the "leucine-zipper" motif. Although Fos/Jun and ATF/CREB were(More)