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The innate immune system is absolutely required for host defence, but, uncontrolled, it leads to inflammatory disease. This control is mediated, in part, by cytokines that are secreted by macrophages. Immune regulation is extraordinarily complex, and can be best investigated with systems approaches (that is, using computational tools to predict regulatory(More)
Hypoxia is a key factor in tumor development, contributing to angiogenesis and radiotherapy resistance. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) is a major transcription factor regulating the response of cancer cells to hypoxia. However, tumors also contain areas of more severe oxygen depletion, or anoxia. Mechanisms for survival under anoxia are HIF-1alpha(More)
In response to environmental stress, cells induce a program of gene expression designed to remedy cellular damage or, alternatively, induce apoptosis. In this report, we explore the role of a family of protein kinases that phosphorylate eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF2) in coordinating stress gene responses. We find that expression of activating(More)
The c-jun proto-oncogene encodes a transcription factor which is activated by mitogens both transcriptionally and by phosphorylation by Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). We have investigated the cellular signalling pathways involved in epidermal growth factor (EGF) induction of the c-jun promoter. We find that two sequence elements, which bind ATF1 and MEF2D(More)
Activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) is rapidly induced by diverse environmental insults including genotoxic stress. We report herein that its interaction with p53, enhanced by genotoxic stress, stabilizes the tumor suppressor thereby augmenting functions of the latter. Overexpression of ATF3 (but not a mutated ATF3 protein (Delta102-139) devoid of its(More)
The tumor metastasis suppressor gene Drg-1 has been shown to suppress metastasis without affecting tumorigenicity in immunodeficient mouse models of prostate and colon cancer. Expression of Drg-1 has also been found to have a significant inverse correlation with metastasis or invasiveness in various types of human cancer. However, how Drg-1 exerts its(More)
Huntington's disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder caused by a polyglutamine expansion near the N-terminus of huntingtin. The mechanisms of polyglutamine neurotoxicity, and cellular responses are not fully understood. We have studied gene expression profiles by short oligo array using an inducible PC12 cell model expressing an N-terminal(More)
In examination of mechanisms regulating metabolic responses to growth hormone (GH), microarray analysis identified 561 probe sets showing time-dependent patterns of expression in GH-treated 3T3-F442A adipocytes. Biological functions significantly over-represented among GH-regulated genes include regulators of transcription at early times, and lipid(More)
Since the early pioneering work of Ballinger and Reckard demonstrating that transplantation of islets of Langerhans into diabetic rodents could normalize their blood glucose levels, islet transplantation has been proposed to be a potential treatment for type 1 diabetes. More recently, advances in human islet transplantation have further strengthened this(More)
Activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) responds to diverse cellular stresses, and regulates oncogenic activities (for example, proliferation, survival and migration) through direct transcriptional regulation or protein-protein interactions. Although aberrant ATF3 expression is frequently found in human cancers, the role of ATF3 in tumorigenesis is poorly(More)