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The innate immune system is absolutely required for host defence, but, uncontrolled, it leads to inflammatory disease. This control is mediated, in part, by cytokines that are secreted by macrophages. Immune regulation is extraordinarily complex, and can be best investigated with systems approaches (that is, using computational tools to predict regulatory(More)
In response to environmental stress, cells induce a program of gene expression designed to remedy cellular damage or, alternatively, induce apoptosis. In this report, we explore the role of a family of protein kinases that phosphorylate eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF2) in coordinating stress gene responses. We find that expression of activating(More)
Free fatty acids (FFA) cause apoptosis of pancreatic beta-cells and might contribute to beta-cell loss in type 2 diabetes via the induction of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. We studied here the molecular mechanisms implicated in FFA-induced ER stress initiation and apoptosis in INS-1E cells, FACS-purified primary beta-cells and human islets exposed to(More)
Gadd153, also known as chop, encodes a member of the CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) transcription factor family and is transcriptionally activated by cellular stress signals. We recently demonstrated that arsenite treatment of rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells results in the biphasic induction of Gadd153 mRNA expression, controlled in part through(More)
  • T Hai, T Curran
  • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences…
  • 1991
The Fos/Jun and ATF/CREB families of transcription factors function in coupling extracellular signals to alterations in expression of specific target genes. Like many eukaryotic transcription factors, these proteins bind to DNA as dimers. Dimerization is mediated by a structure known as the "leucine-zipper" motif. Although Fos/Jun and ATF/CREB were(More)
The mammalian ATF/CREB family of transcription factors represents a large group of basic region-leucine zipper (bZip) proteins which was originally defined in the late 1980s by their ability to bind to the consensus ATF/CRE site 'TGACGTCA'. Over the past decade, cDNA clones encoding identical or homologous proteins have been isolated by different(More)
We propose an interhelical salt bridge rule to explain the dimerization specificity between the two amphipathic alpha-helices in the leucine zipper structure. Using the bZIP class of DNA-binding proteins as a model system, we predicted and designed novel dimerization partners. We predicted that ATF4, a member of the ATF/CREB family of transcription factors,(More)
The purpose of this review is to discuss ATF3, a member of the ATF/CREB family of transcription factors, and its roles in stress responses. In the introduction, we briefly describe the ATF/CREB family, which contains more than 10 proteins with the basic region-leucine zipper (bZip) DNA binding domain. We summarize their DNA binding and heterodimer formation(More)
Activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) is a stress-inducible gene and encodes a member of the ATF/CREB family of transcription factors. However, the physiological significance of ATF3 induction by stress signals is not clear. In this report, we describe several lines of evidence supporting a role of ATF3 in stress-induced beta-cell apoptosis. First, ATF3(More)
ATF3 (activating transcription factor 3) gene encodes a member of the ATF/CREB (cAMP-response-element-binding protein) family of transcription factors. Its expression is induced by a wide range of signals, including stress signals and signals that promote cell proliferation and motility. Thus the ATF3 gene can be characterized as an 'adaptive response' gene(More)