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The innate immune system is absolutely required for host defence, but, uncontrolled, it leads to inflammatory disease. This control is mediated, in part, by cytokines that are secreted by macrophages. Immune regulation is extraordinarily complex, and can be best investigated with systems approaches (that is, using computational tools to predict regulatory(More)
Huntington's disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder caused by a polyglutamine expansion near the N-terminus of huntingtin. The mechanisms of polyglutamine neurotoxicity, and cellular responses are not fully understood. We have studied gene expression profiles by short oligo array using an inducible PC12 cell model expressing an N-terminal(More)
In examination of mechanisms regulating metabolic responses to growth hormone (GH), microarray analysis identified 561 probe sets showing time-dependent patterns of expression in GH-treated 3T3-F442A adipocytes. Biological functions significantly over-represented among GH-regulated genes include regulators of transcription at early times, and lipid(More)
BACKGROUND The combination of elevated glucose and free-fatty acids (FFA), prevalent in diabetes, has been suggested to be a major contributor to pancreatic β-cell death. This study examines the synergistic effects of glucose and FFA on β-cell apoptosis and the molecular mechanisms involved. Mouse insulinoma cells and primary islets were treated with(More)
Since the early pioneering work of Ballinger and Reckard demonstrating that transplantation of islets of Langerhans into diabetic rodents could normalize their blood glucose levels, islet transplantation has been proposed to be a potential treatment for type 1 diabetes. More recently, advances in human islet transplantation have further strengthened this(More)
Activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) responds to diverse cellular stresses, and regulates oncogenic activities (for example, proliferation, survival and migration) through direct transcriptional regulation or protein-protein interactions. Although aberrant ATF3 expression is frequently found in human cancers, the role of ATF3 in tumorigenesis is poorly(More)
Cardiac hypertrophy is an adaptive response to various mechanophysical and pathophysiological stresses. However, when chronic stress is sustained, the beneficial response turns into a maladaptive process that eventually leads to heart failure. Although major advances in the treatment of patients have reduced mortality, there is a dire need for novel(More)
Elevated circulating cholesterol is a systemic risk factor for cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome, however the manner in which the normal prostate responds to variations in cholesterol levels is poorly understood. In this study we addressed the molecular and cellular effects of elevated and suppressed levels of circulating cholesterol on the(More)
Steroid sex hormones can induce prostate carcinogenesis, and are thought to contribute to the development of prostate cancer during aging. However, the mechanism for hormone-induced prostate carcinogenesis remains elusive. Here, we report that activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3)-a broad stress sensor-suppressed hormone-induced prostate carcinogenesis(More)