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BACKGROUND Molecular and electrophysiological properties of NMDARs suggest that they may be the Hebbian "coincidence detectors" hypothesized to underlie associative learning. Because of the nonspecificity of drugs that modulate NMDAR function or the relatively chronic genetic manipulations of various NMDAR subunits from mammalian studies, conclusive(More)
Long-term memory (LTM) depends on the synthesis of new proteins. Using a temperature-sensitive ribosome-inactivating toxin to acutely inhibit protein synthesis, we screened individual neurons making new proteins after olfactory associative conditioning in Drosophila. Surprisingly, LTM was impaired after inhibiting protein synthesis in two(More)
In humans and many other animals, memory consolidation occurs through multiple temporal phases and usually involves more than one neuroanatomical brain system. Genetic dissection of Pavlovian olfactory learning in Drosophila melanogaster has revealed multiple memory phases, but the predominant view holds that all memory phases occur in mushroom body(More)
In vertebrates, the N-methyl-D-aspartate subtype of glutamate receptors (NMDAR) appears to play a role in neuronal development, synaptic plasticity, memory formation, and pituitary activity. However, functional NMDAR have not yet been characterized in insects. We have now demonstrated immunohistochemically glutamatergic nerve terminals in the corpora allata(More)
Pavlovian olfactory learning in Drosophila produces two genetically distinct forms of intermediate-term memories: anesthesia-sensitive memory, which requires the amnesiac gene, and anesthesia-resistant memory (ARM), which requires the radish gene. Here, we report that ARM is specifically enhanced or inhibited in flies with elevated or reduced serotonin(More)
Different stimulus intensities elicit distinct perceptions, implying that input signals are either conveyed through an overlapping but distinct subpopulation of sensory neurons or channeled into divergent brain circuits according to intensity. In Drosophila, carbon dioxide (CO2) is detected by a single type of olfactory sensory neuron, but information is(More)
The GAL4/UAS gene expression system is a precise means of targeted gene expression employed to study biological phenomena in Drosophila. A modified GAL4/UAS system can be conditionally regulated using a temporal and regional gene expression targeting (TARGET) system that responds to heat shock induction. However heat shock-related temperature shifts(More)
The detection of environmental temperature and regulation of body temperature are integral determinants of behaviour for all animals. These functions become less efficient in aged animals, particularly during exposure to cold environments, yet the cellular and molecular mechanisms are not well understood. Here, we identify an age-related change in the(More)
Local neurons in the vertebrate retina are instrumental in transforming visual inputs to extract contrast, motion, and color information and in shaping bipolar-to-ganglion cell transmission to the brain. In Drosophila, UV vision is represented by R7 inner photoreceptor neurons that project to the medulla M6 stratum, with relatively little known of this(More)
Dengue virus (DV) infections cause mild dengue fever (DF) or severe life-threatening dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF). The mechanisms that cause hemorrhage in DV infections remain poorly understood. Thrombomodulin (TM) is a glycoprotein expressed on the surface of vascular endothelial cells that plays an important role in the thrombin-mediated activation of(More)