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Axoplasm from the squid giant axon contains a soluble protein translocator that induces movement of microtubules on glass, latex beads on microtubules, and axoplasmic organelles on microtubules. We now report the partial purification of a protein from squid giant axons and optic lobes that induces these microtubule-based movements and show that there is a(More)
When the nerves of isolated frog sartorius muscles were stimulated at 10 Hz, synaptic vesicles in the motor nerve terminals became transiently depleted. This depletion apparently resulted from a redistribution rather than disappearance of synaptic vesicle membrane, since the total amount of membrane comprising these nerve terminals remained constant during(More)
Certain junctions between ependymal cells, between astrocytes, and between some electrically coupled neurons have heretofore been regarded as tight, pentalaminar occlusions of the intercellular cleft. These junctions are now redefined in terms of their configuration after treatment of brain tissue in uranyl acetate before dehydration. Instead of a median(More)
A reconstituted system for examining directed organelle movements along purified microtubules has been developed. Axoplasm from the squid giant axon was separated into soluble supernatant and organelle-enriched fractions. Movement of axoplasmic organelles along MAP-free microtubules occurred consistently only after addition of axoplasmic supernatant and(More)
Single microtubules from squid axoplasm support bidirectional movement of organelles. We previously purified a microtubule translocator (kinesin) that moves latex beads in only one direction along microtubules. In this study, a polar array of microtubules assembled off of centrosomes in vitro was used to demonstrate that kinesin moves latex beads from the(More)
We describe the design and operation of a machine that freezes biological tissues by contact with a cold metal block, which incorporates a timing circuit that stimulates frog neuromuscular junctions in the last few milliseconds before thay are frozen. We show freeze-fracture replicas of nerve terminals frozen during transmitter discharge, which display(More)
Horseradish peroxidase was administered to mice by intravenous injection, and its distribution in cerebral cortex studied with a recently available technique for localizing peroxidase with the electron microscope. Brains were fixed by either immersion or vascular perfusion 10-60 min after administration of various doses of peroxidase. Exogenous peroxidase(More)
Cytoplasmic filaments, separated from the axoplasm of the squid giant axon and visualized by video-enhanced differential interference contrast microscopy, support the directed movement of organelles in the presence of ATP. All organelles, regardless of size, move continuously along isolated transport filaments at 2.2 +/- 0.2 micron/sec. In the intact(More)