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BACKGROUND Isoflurane and carbon dioxide (CO(2)) negatively modulate N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, but via different mechanisms. Isoflurane is a competitive antagonist at the NMDA receptor glycine binding site, whereas CO(2) inhibits NMDA receptor current through extracellular acidification. Isoflurane and CO(2) exhibit additive minimum alveolar(More)
To obtain the standard compounds of metoprolol for a pharmacokinetic study, a convenient synthetic procedure to prepare enantiomers of metoprolol (3a) and its major metabolites, 2-4-(2-hydroxy-3-isopropylamino)propoxyphenylethanol (3b) and 4-(2-hydroxy-3-isopropylamino)propoxyphenylacetic acid (4), was developed from their respective starting materials,(More)
Many anesthetics modulate 3-transmembrane (such as NMDA) and 4-transmembrane (such as GABAA) receptors. Clinical and experimental anesthetics exhibiting receptor family specificity often have low water solubility. We hypothesized that the molar water solubility of a hydrocarbon could be used to predict receptor modulation in vitro. GABAA (α1β2γ2s) or NMDA(More)
OBJECTIVE N-butane and n-pentane can both produce general anesthesia. Both compounds potentiate γ-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) receptor function, but only butane inhibits N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. It was hypothesized that butane and pentane would exhibit anesthetic synergy due to their different actions on ligand-gated ion channels. STUDY(More)
BACKGROUND The modulation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors is associated with a molar water solubility cut-off effect of approximately 1.1 mmol/l and hence are unaffected by significantly less soluble compounds. However, compounds with this molar water solubility are still able to modulate x03B3;-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) receptors. We hypothesized(More)
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