Trung L Pham

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BACKGROUND Isoflurane and carbon dioxide (CO(2)) negatively modulate N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, but via different mechanisms. Isoflurane is a competitive antagonist at the NMDA receptor glycine binding site, whereas CO(2) inhibits NMDA receptor current through extracellular acidification. Isoflurane and CO(2) exhibit additive minimum alveolar(More)
Many anesthetics modulate 3-transmembrane (such as NMDA) and 4-transmembrane (such as GABAA) receptors. Clinical and experimental anesthetics exhibiting receptor family specificity often have low water solubility. We hypothesized that the molar water solubility of a hydrocarbon could be used to predict receptor modulation in vitro. GABAA (α1β2γ2s) or NMDA(More)
BACKGROUND The modulation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors is associated with a molar water solubility cut-off effect of approximately 1.1 mmol/l and hence are unaffected by significantly less soluble compounds. However, compounds with this molar water solubility are still able to modulate x03B3;-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) receptors. We hypothesized(More)
OBJECTIVE N-butane and n-pentane can both produce general anesthesia. Both compounds potentiate γ-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) receptor function, but only butane inhibits N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. It was hypothesized that butane and pentane would exhibit anesthetic synergy due to their different actions on ligand-gated ion channels. STUDY(More)
To obtain the standard compounds of metoprolol for a pharmacokinetic study, a convenient synthetic procedure to prepare enantiomers of metoprolol (3a) and its major metabolites, 2-4-(2-hydroxy-3-isopropylamino)propoxyphenylethanol (3b) and 4-(2-hydroxy-3-isopropylamino)propoxyphenylacetic acid (4), was developed from their respective starting materials,(More)
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