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The evolution of actin gene families is characterized by independent expansions and contractions across the eukaryotic tree of life. Here, we assess diversity of actin gene sequences within three lineages of the genus Arcella, a free-living testate (shelled) amoeba in the Arcellinida. We established four clonal lines of two morphospecies, Arcella(More)
Evolutionary relationships within Amoebozoa have been the subject of controversy for two reasons: 1) paucity of morphological characters in traditional surveys and 2) haphazard taxonomic sampling in modern molecular reconstructions. These along with other factors have prevented the erection of a definitive system that resolves confidently both higher and(More)
Testate (shelled) amoebae are abundant and diverse in Sphagnum-rich areas of bogs and fens. Test morphology is standardly used to identify morphospecies as tests have varying shapes and compositions (e.g. siliceous, proteinaceous, agglutinated, or even calcareous). The recent application of molecular tools has revealed a greater complexity than morphology(More)
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